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Chapter 16: Endocrine System (Mastering)

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1

The amplification of the signal from a water-soluble hormone is achieved through an increase in _______.

plasma membrane receptors

phosphodiesterase in the cytoplasm

cAMP in the cytoplasm

adenylate cyclase in the plasma membrane

water-soluble hormone in the blood

cAMP in the cytoplasm

2

Water-soluble hormones affect target cells by binding to __________.

adenylate cyclase

cAMP

cytoplasmic receptors

protein kinases

plasma membrane receptors

plasma membrane receptors

3

How do endocrine hormones reach their target cells? Select the best answer.

Hormones travel through the lymphatic system to target cells.

Hormones are released at synapses adjacent to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

Hormones are produced by endocrine cells that are adjacent to target cells.

Ducts transport hormones directly to target cells.

Hormones are transported through the blood stream to target cells.

4

What is the role of activated protein kinases? Select the best answer.

Convert ATP to cAMP by phosphorylation.

Phosphorylate ADP to ATP.

Activate adenylate cyclase.

Phosphorylate proteins.

Degrade cAMP to AMP.

Phosphorylate proteins.

5

Cyclic AMP is degraded by __________.

AMP

protein kinase

phosphodiesterase

adenylate cyclase

G proteins

phosphodiesterase

6

Which of the following hormones has intracellular receptors?

epinephrine

cortisol

insulin

cortisol

7

What is the mechanism of action of lipid-soluble hormones?

increasing protein kinases

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

phosphorylation of intracellular proteins

activation of genes, which increases protein synthesis in the cell

8

After a lipid-soluble hormone is bound to its intracellular receptor, what does the hormone complex do?

phosphorylates a protein activates a protein kinase

directly alters protein synthesis at the ribosome

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

acts as a transcription factor and binds to DNA, activating a gene

9

Which hormone’s receptor is always bound to DNA, even when the receptor is empty?

thyroid hormone

insulin

cortisol

thyroid hormone

10

What keeps intracellular receptors from binding to DNA before a hormone binds to the receptor?

transcription factors

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

Receptors can’t enter the nucleus until the hormone is bound to it.

chaperone proteins (chaperonins)

11

Art-based Question

Both high blood glucose levels and low blood glucose levels are stimuli that trigger specific responses by the body. These responses cause blood glucose levels to return to their set point. In this activity, you will explore how this happens.

To review how the body regulates blood sugar levels, watch this BioFlix animation: Homeostasis: Regulating Blood Sugar.

Part A - Regulating blood sugar. This diagram shows how the body keeps blood glucose at a normal level.Drag each label to the appropriate location on the diagram.

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A: Pancreas releases insulin

B: Body cells takes up more glucose

C: Liver takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen

D: Blood glucose decreases to normal

E: Pancreas releases glucagon

F: Liver breaks down glycogen and releases glucose to the blood

G: Blood glucose returns to normal

12

Up-regulation involves the loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistently high hormone levels.

True

False

False

13

Which of the following occurs in situations where more than one hormone produces the same effects at the target cell and their combined effects are amplified?

synergism

antagonism

summation

permissiveness

synergism

14

Hypocalcemia could be caused by the ______.

apoptosis of parathyroid cells

failure of osteoclasts to respond to PTH (parathyroid hormone/parathormone)

malfunction of the parathormone receptors in kidney tubule cells

All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

15

Art-based Question

What hormone released into the blood (shown by letter D) by the posterior pituitary inhibits or prevents urine formation?

oxytocin

cortisol

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

16

Art-based Question

Where are the hormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stored?

A

B

C

D

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C

17

What is the name for the type of hormone, secreted by the pituitary that regulates other endocrine organs?

somatotropins

growth hormones

somatostatins

tropins

tropins

18

Which of the following hormones stimulates an increase in basal metabolic rate as a tropic hormone?

thyroid-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

prolactin

follicle-stimulating hormone

thyroid-stimulating hormone

19

Which hormone aids in water resorption?

thyroid hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

parathyroid hormone

antidiuretic hormone

antidiuretic hormone

20

What tropic hormone stimulates cortisol from the adrenal gland?

thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

growth hormone (GH)

luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

21

What is the function of the ventral hypothalamic neurons?

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

control secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

control secretion of thyroid hormones

control secretion of oxytocin

control secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

22

Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are intermediary hormones stimulated by which of the following hormones?

GH (growth hormone)

oxytocin

thyroid hormones

prolactin (PRL)

GH (growth hormone)

23

Which of the following hormones is regulated by a neuroendocrine (“letdown”) reflex?

oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

cortisol

oxytocin

24

Where is antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as vasopressin, synthesized?

posterior pituitary

anterior pituitary

hypothalamus

kidney

hypothalamus

25

What is the most important regulatory factor controlling the circulating levels of thyroid hormone?

thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

a circadian rhythm of release

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

negative feedback

negative feedback

26

Art-based Question

What type of cell is shown at letter C?

follicular cells

parafollicular cells

beta cells

parathyroid cells

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follicular cells

27

Art-based Question

What hormone is released by the cells pictured in letter D?

calcitonin

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

glucocorticoids

thyroid hormones

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calcitonin

28

Which of the following glands increases blood calcium levels?

pituitary

adrenal

thyroid

parathyroid

parathyroid

29

Art-based Question

What hormone, indicated by letter B, is released by the anterior pituitary to target the adrenal cortex when we are under stress?

atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)

angiotensin II

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

30

Art-based Question

Which of these conditions would promote aldosterone release from the adrenal glands?

A drop in blood pressure is sensed in the kidney.

The body becomes parasympathetically activated.

An increase in blood pressure is sensed in the heart.

Blood potassium levels fall.

A drop in blood pressure is sensed in the kidney.

31

Art-based Question

Which letter represents the hormone that promotes a decrease in blood pressure and a loss of sodium and water in urine?

A

B

C

D

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D

32

Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland zone, or area, with the class of hormones it produces?

zona reticularis: aldosterone

medulla: glucocorticoids

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids

zona fasciculata: catecholemines

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids

33

Art-based Question

Which of the following best describes the hypoglycemic effect of insulin?

Insulin allows entry of glucose into most body cells.

Insulin encourages release of glucose into the blood by liver cells.

Insulin encourages synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and noncarbohydrate molecules.

Insulin encourages catabolism of glycogen into glucose.

Insulin allows entry of glucose into most body cells.

34

Which of the following brain structures would cause central diabetes insipidus if it were damaged?

hypothalamus

cerebellum

cerebrum

pons

hypothalamus