The Autonomic Nervous System

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1

Cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine and adrenergic neurons release norepinephrine and epinephrine

  1. norepinephrine and epinephrine, acetylcholine
  2. acetylcholine, melatonin
  3. nicotine, acetylcholine
  4. acetylcholine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
  5. none of the above

d.

2

Because of the location of the preganglionic cell bodies, the sympathetic division of the ANS is also called:

  1. craniosacral division
  2. sacral division
  3. thoracolumbar division
  4. lumbar division
  5. none of the above

c.

3

Because of the location of the preganglionic cell bodies, the parasympathetic division is referred to as:

  1. thoracolumbar division
  2. none of the above
  3. thoracic division
  4. craniosacral division
  5. lumbar plexus

d.

4

The _______ nerves transmit 80% of the outflow of the parasympathetic preganglionic axons.

  1. vagus
  2. optic
  3. hypoglossal
  4. accessory
  5. cranial

a.

5

Organs that receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic motor impulses are said to have

  1. excitation
  2. dual innervation
  3. muscarinic receptors
  4. integrative innervation
  5. none of the above

b.

6

What neurons release norepinephrine ?

  1. all parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons preganglionic neurons
  2. all sympathetic postganglionic neurons
  3. all parasympathetic and sympathetic postganglionic neurons
  4. all axons
  5. none of the above

a.

7

Which of the following statements is false?

  1. A single sympathetic preganglionic fiber may synapse with 20 or more postganglionic fibers, which partly explains why sympathetic responses are widespread throughout the body.
  2. Parasympathetic effects tend to be localized because parasympathetic neurons usually synapse in the terminal ganglia with only four or five postsynaptic neurons (all of which supply a single effector).
  3. Some sympathetic preganglionic neurons extend to and terminate in the adrenal medullae.
  4. The parasympathetic preganglionic neurons synapse with the postganglionic axons in the prevertebral ganglia.
  5. Parasympathetic preganglionic neurons emerge from the CNS as part of a cranial nerve or anterior root of a spinal nerve.

d.

8

Which autonomic plexus supplies the large intestine?

  1. Renal, celiac
  2. Inferior mesenteric,superior mesenteric
  3. Hypogastric, Superior mesenteric
  4. Superior mesenteric.
  5. Celiac

c.

9

All of the following would be indicators of increased sympathetic activity EXCEPT:

  1. Dilated pupils
  2. Increased blood flow to skeletal muscles
  3. Constricted pupiles
  4. Decreased blood flow to digestive viscera
  5. Constricted bronchioles

e.

10

Which of the following are reasons why the effects of sympathetic stimulation are longer lasting and more widespread than those of parasympathetic stimulation?

  1. There is greater divergence of sympathetic postganglionic fibers
  2. There is less divergence of sympathetic postganglionic fibers and There is less divergence of sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
  3. There is greater divergence of sympathetic postganglionic fibers Acetylcholinesterase quickly inactivates ACh, but norepinephrine lingers in the synaptic cleft for a longer time, norepinephrine, &epinephrine secreted into the blood by the adrenal medullae intensify the actions of the sympathetic division.
  4. ACh remains in the synaptic cleft until norepinephrine is produced.
  5. none of the above

c.

11

In an autonomic reflex arc, the preganglionic neuron carries impulses to the ________, while the postganglionic neuron carries impulses from the autonomic ganglion to the ________.

  1. autonomic ganglion, effectors
  2. preganglionic neuron, postganglioic neuron
  3. autonimic ganglion, rami communicates
  4. posterior root plexus, effectors
  5. none of the above

a.

12

Agonist _______ the affects of a neurotransmitter. Antagonist ________ the affects of a neurotransmitters.

  1. blocks, mimics
  2. mimics, blocks
  3. stimulates, propagates
  4. propagates, stimulates
  5. none of the above

b.

13

What is the regulator of the autonomic tone?

  1. thalamus
  2. cerebral cortex
  3. cerebellum
  4. basal nuclei
  5. hypothalamus

e.

14

Which of the following are cholinergic neurons?
1. All sympathetic preganglionic neurons
2. All parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
3. All parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
4. All sympathetic postganglionic neurons
5. Some sympathetic postganglionic neurons

  1. 1, 2, 3, and 5
  2. 1, 2, 3, and 4
  3. 2, 3, and 5
  4. 2 and 5
  5. 1, 3, and 5

a.