Psychotherapy Chapter 7 - Person Centered Therapy

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1

The person­centered approach's view of human nature:​

a. v​iews people as basically competitive.
b. s​tates that humans are driven by irrational forces.
c. e​mphasizes clients' abilities to engage their own resources to act in their world with others.
d. a​ssumes that, while humans have the potential for growth, we tend to remain stagnant.

c

2

Person­centered therapy is best described as a:​

a. c​ompleted "school" of counseling.
b. f​ixed set of therapeutic principles.
c. s​ystematic set of behavioral techniques.
d. p​hilosophy of how the therapy process develops.

d

3

Characteristics of a self-actualized person include all of the following, except:​

a. w​elcomes uncertainty in his or her life.
b. has a capacity for deep and intense interpersonal relationships.
c. h​as artificial dichotomies within himself or herself.
d. i​s spontaneous and creative.

c

4

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the person-centered approach? ​

a. ​The focus is on the phenomenological world of the client.
b. ​It is supported by evidence from ongoing research.
c. ​The client-centered approach emphasized the role of the therapist as a facilitator of growth and honored the inherent power of the client.
d. ​Emphasis is given to developing a contract for therapy.

d

5

Person­centered therapy is a(n):​

a. a​ction­oriented approach to therapy.
b. h​umanistic approach to therapy.
c. e​xistential approach to therapy.
d. d​eterministic approach to therapy.

b

6

The ______________________that recently has come into prominence shares many concepts on the healthy side of human existence with the humanistic approach.​

a. ​ positive psychology movement
b. ​ object relations approach
c. ​ dialectical behavior therapy approach
d. ​ applied behavior analysis movement

a

7

What is the most important factor related to progress in person-centered therapy? ​

a. ​ Defining concrete and measurable goals
b. ​ The therapist’s technical skills
c. ​ The relationship between the client and therapist
d. ​ The therapist's ability to think logically and to scientifically solve problems

c

8

Carlos, an eight year old boy, was recently removed from his home because he was being physically and sexually abused by his father. In accordance with Maslow’s framework, which needs took precedence?​

a. P​hysical and safety needs
b. B​elonging and love
c. E​steem from self and others
d. S​elf­actualization

a

9

Which of the following is not considered a necessary and sufficient condition for change in the person-centered framework? ​

a. U​nconditional positive regard
b. C​reative expression
c. A​ccurate empathetic understanding
d. C​ongruence

b

10

Which statement(s) is (are) true of the person-centered approach? ​

a. ​ Therapists should give advice when clients need it.
b. ​ The techniques a therapist uses are less important than his or her attitudes.
c. ​ Therapists should function largely as teachers.
d. ​ Therapy is primarily the therapist's responsibility.

b

11

Which of the following is not a key concept of the person-centered approach?​

a. ​ The focus is on experiencing the immediate moment.
b. ​ In a climate of safety in the therapeutic session, the client comes to realize that there are more authentic ways of being.
c. ​ The client is primarily responsible for the direction of therapy.
d. ​ The focus is on exploration of a client's past.

d

12

The person-centered therapist is best described as a: ​

a. f​acilitator.
b. ​teacher.
c. h​uman engineer.
d. f​riend.

a

13

Which of the statements below regarding Motivational Interviewing is not accurate?​

a. ​ MI was initially designed as a brief intervention for problem drinking.
b. ​ MI stresses client self-responsibility and promotes an invitational style for working cooperatively with clients to generate alternative solutions to behavioral problems.
c. ​ MI was developed by Maslow in the late 70s after he created his theory on self-actualization.
d. ​ MI therapists avoid arguing with clients and reframe resistance as a healthy response.

c

14

In order for a therapist to communicate "accurate empathic understanding" the counselor must: ​

a. ​ have experienced a situation very similar to the client's current predicament.
b. ​ clarify details and facts relevant to the client's experiences.
c. ​ feel a deep sense of warmth toward the client.
d. ​ connect emotionally to the client's subjective world.

d

15

The technique of reflection involves the therapist: ​

a. ​ restating the client's words verbatim.
b. ​ sharing his or her genuine emotional response with the client.
c. ​ mirroring the client's emotional experience of a particular situation.
d. ​ bringing an actual mirror into the session and having a client look at himself or herself in the mirror.

c

16

A potential limitation of the person-centered approach is:​

a. ​ their view of assessment and diagnosis.
b. ​ that some students-in-training and practitioners may have a tendency to be very supportive of clients without being challenging.
c. ​ shortcomings of the studies of the approach.
d. ​ the continual evolution of the approach leads to unclear therapeutic principles.

b

17

The person-centered therapist generally does not find traditional assessment and diagnosis: ​

a. ​ as a useful tool for case conceptualization.
b. ​ as a meaningful way of understanding of a client's psychological state.
c. ​ to be useful because these procedures encourage an external and expert perspective on the client.
d. ​ as a necessary process that does not impact the course of therapy.

c

18

In applying the person-centered approach to crisis intervention, therapists should do all of the following, except:

a. ​ communicate a deep sense of understanding.
b. ​ provide genuine support and warmth.
c. ​ use a more structured approach and provide clients with some direction.
d. ​ do not give the individual the opportunity to fully express themselves.

d

19

What is a limitation of person-centered therapy? ​

a. ​ The approach does not make use of research to study the process or outcomes of therapy.
b. ​ The therapist has more power to manipulate and control the client than is true of most other therapies.
c. ​ The approach does not emphasize the role of techniques in creating change in the client's behavior.
d. ​ The client is not given enough responsibility to direct the course of his or her own therapy.

c

20

One point of disagreement between existential and humanistic thought involves:

a. ​ a respect for the client's subjective experience.
b. ​ a trust in the capacity of the client to make positive choices.
c. ​ an emphasis on freedom.
d. ​ the idea of an innate self-actualizing drive.

d

21

Which of the following is not true about Carl Rogers?​

a. ​ He was raised with strict religious standards in his home.
b. ​ He developed cognitive therapy.
c. ​ At one point in his life, he was preparing to enter the ministry.
d. ​ He made a contribution toward achieving world peace.

b

22

Which of the following is the correct order in terms of the historical development of Carl Rogers’s approach to counseling?​

a. ​ Client-centered to person-centered to nondirective
b. ​ Client-centered to nondirective to person-centered
c. ​ Nondirective to client-centered to person-centered
d. ​ Nondirective to person-centered to client-centered

c

23

According to Rogerian therapy, an "internal source of evaluation" is defined as:​

a. ​ internalizing the validation one receives from others.
b. ​ looking more to oneself for the answers to the problems of existence.
c. ​ going on one's instincts when judging the behavior of others.
d. ​ a neurotic tendency to be self-critical.

b

24

Which of the following personal characteristics of the therapist is most important, according to Carl Rogers?​

a. U​nconditional positive regard
b. ​Acceptance
c. G​enuineness
d. A​ccurate empathic understanding

c

25

Which of the following is not true about the most recent trends in person-centered therapy?​

a. ​ It could be referred to as holistic therapy.
b. ​ Acceptance and clarification are the main techniques used.
c. ​ It emphasizes an increased involvement of the therapist as a person.
d. ​ It allows the therapist greater freedom to be active in the therapeutic relationship.

b

26

Carl Rogers’s position on confronting the client is that: ​

a. ​ confrontation is to be avoided at all costs.
b. ​ confrontation causes clients to stop growing.
c. ​ confrontation reflects that the therapist has a need to be in control.
d. ​ confrontation or resistance must be responded to in a nonconfrontational manner.

d

27

Carl Rogers drew heavily from existential concepts, especially as they apply to: ​

a. ​ the transference relationship.
b. ​ countertransference, or unfinished business of the counselor.
c. ​ the client/therapist relationship.
d. ​ guilt and anxiety.

c

28

A common theme originating in Carl Rogers’s early writings and continuing to permeate all of his works is:​

a. ​the need to find meaning in life through love, work, or suffering.
b. ​ the need for a religion to find meaning in life.
c. ​ the importance of expressing feelings that stem from childhood issues.
d. ​ a basic sense of trust in the client's ability to move forward in a constructive manner if conditions fostering growth are present.

d

29

From a person-centered perspective, the best source of knowledge about the client is the: ​

a. i​ndividual client.
b. t​herapist.
c. c​lient's family.
d. t​herapeutic relationship.

a

30

The __________ is a directional process of striving toward realization, fulfillment, autonomy, and selfdetermination. ​

a. c​ongruence tendency
b. e​mpathic understanding
c. a​ctualizing tendency
d. a​ctualizing understanding

c

31

From Carl Rogers's perspective the client/therapist relationship is characterized by: ​

a. a​ sense of equality.
b. t​he transference relationship.
c. t​he therapist functioning as the expert.
d. a​ clearly defined contract that specifies what clients will talk about in the sessions.

a

32

Therapists utilizing motivational interviewing strategies view clients as:​

a. ​ opponents to be defeated.
b. ​ allies who play a major role in their present and future success.
c. ​ victims of their own psychopathology who need to be liberated from their pain and dysfunction.
d. ​ people who are lazy and need a powerful incentive to change their ways.

b

33

In person-centered group therapy, the leader: ​

a. ​ displays a sense of trust in the members.
b. ​ uses techniques and exercises to motivate the group.
c. ​ focuses on making interpretations.
d. ​ sets goals for the group members.

a

34

In the 1960s and 1970s Rogers did a great deal to spearhead the development of:​

a. ​ organizational management seminars.
b. ​ private colleges aimed at training person-centered therapists.
c. ​ student-centered teaching and encounter groups.
d. ​ the National Training Laboratories and T-groups.

c

35

Concerning research on psychotherapy and Carl Rogers, which of the following is not true? ​

a. ​ Rogers stated his concepts as testable hypotheses and submitted them to research.
b. ​ Rogers literally opened the field for psychotherapy research.
c. ​ Rogers inspired others to conduct extensive research on counseling process and outcome.
d. ​ Rogers did not conduct the research himself.

d

36

Accurate empathic understanding helps clients in all the following areas, except: ​

a. ​ to notice and devalue their experiences.
b. ​ to view prior experiences in new ways.
c. ​ to process their experience both cognitively and bodily.
d. ​ to increase their confidence in making choices and in pursuing a course of action.

a

37

Adrianne, who is uncertain about her career goals and is afraid to commit to any career path, is working with a therapist who specializes in using motivational interviewing strategies. What will her therapist look for in order to assess the success of therapy?​

a. ​ An improvement in Adrianne's ability to block negative thoughts about her career options
b. ​ A reduction in Adrianne's ambivalence about choosing a career path and an increase in her intrinsic motivation to clarify her direction
c. Progress in working through unconscious conflicts related to commitment​
d. ​ A willingness on Adrianne's part to examine her family constellation in order to deepen her understanding of her reasons for her lack of direction

b

38

Methods of expressive arts therapy are based on humanistic principles. Which of the following principles is not one?​

a. ​ Releasing creative energy is based on the principle of regression.
b. ​ The creative process is transformative and healing.
c. ​ The expressive arts lead us into the unconscious.
d. ​ Our feelings and emotions are a source of energy.

a

39

Patrick has been confronted by family members and friends about his excessive gambling. Despite their attempts to help him, he insists that they are overreacting and that he has everything under control. He does not feel the need to alter his behaviors. Patrick is at which stage of change?​

a. P​recontemplation
b. C​ontemplation
c. P​reparation
d. A​ction

a

40

A factor that distinguishes the person-centered approach to group counseling from other approaches is the: ​

a. t​herapist's role as facilitator.
b. l​ength of treatment.
c. f​ocus on creating a collaborative spirit.
d. f​ocus on building genuine relationships among members.

a

41

true or false

Carl Rogers’s original emphasis was on reflection of feelings expressed by the client.​

true

42

true or false

Carl Rogers’s approach is based on the assumptions that humans are trustworthy and that clients desire to grow.

true

43

true or false

The person-centered approach is based on a set of specific therapeutic techniques designed to promote behavior change.

false

44

true or false

According to Carl Rogers, personality change occurs only when clients develop insight into the origin of their personality problems.​

false

45

true or false

Free association and dream analysis are a typical part of the person­centered therapist’s procedures.​

false

46

true or false

Carl Rogers is often called the “father of psychotherapy research.”​

true

47

true or false

Congruence is a basic characteristic of effective therapists.​

true

48

true or false

Therapists are encouraged to use positive regard for clients only as a means of shaping their behavior.​

false

49

true or false

The concept of unconditional positive regard implies that therapists develop an accepting and approving attitude toward all actions taken by their clients.

false

50

true or false

Therapists who have little respect for their clients can anticipate that their therapeutic work will not be fruitful.​

true

51

true or false

Accurate empathic understanding implies an objective understanding of a client.​

false

52

true or false

If the therapeutic core conditions exist over some period of time, constructive personality change will not occur. ​

false

53

true or false

The person-centered approach evolved from a nondirective therapy to an experiential therapy.​

true

54

true or false

The person-centered model has become stagnant and shows little sign of evolution.​

false

55

true or false

Person-centered expressive arts therapy can be used in both group and individual contexts.​

true

56

true or false

When Rogers challenged the basic assumption that “the counselor knows best,” he thought that this radical idea would affect the power dynamics and politics of the counseling profession, but to his surprise, it did not.​

false

57

true or false

The term “presence” refers to the counselor’s ability to be fully engaged in the therapeutic relationship with the client.​

true

58

true or false

An assumption of person­centered therapy is that the counselor’s presence is far more powerful than techniques he or she uses to facilitate change.​

true

59

true or false

Carl Rogers encouraged counselors to use a nonconfrontational manner with their clients.​

true

60

true or false

Person-centered therapy groups emphasize the unique role of the group counselor as a leader.​

false

61

true or false

The person-centered approach places emphasis on the necessary and sufficient conditions for change.​

true

62

true or false

Natalie Rogers is no longer an active contributor to the person-centered approach.​

false

63

true or false

Maslow postulated a hierarchy of needs as a source of motivation, with the most basic needs being physiological needs.​

true

64

true or false

The person-centered approach is not particularly well-suited to multi-cultural counseling.​

false

65

true or false

The person-centered model has been widely adapted to include such areas as family therapy, crisis counseling and classroom education. ​

true

66

true or false

Emotion-focused therapy (EFT) emerged as a behavioral approach informed by understanding the role of an emotion in human functioning and psychotherapeutic change.​

false

67

true or false

Empathy is a deep and subjective understanding of the client with the client.​

true

68

true or false

Immediacy is highly valued in the person-centered approach​

true

69

true or false

The underlying vision of humanistic philosophy is captured by the metaphor of how an acorn will automatically grow in positive ways, pushed naturally toward its actualization as an oak.

true

70

true or false

Maslow believed not enough research was being conducted on anxiety, hostility, and neuroses and too much into joy, creativity, and self-fulfillment.​

false