Psychotherapy Chapter 4 - Psychoanalytic Therapy

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1

Evidence suggesting the concept of the unconscious includes all of the following except:​

a. d​reams.
b. p​ost­hypnotic suggestions.
c. f​ree­association.
d. m​aterial derived from introspective techniques.

d

2

A person who unconsciously exhibits overly nice behavior to conceal hostile feelings is probably using which ego defense? ​

a. D​isplacement
b. R​eaction formation
c. I​ntrojection
d. P​rojection

b

3

One of the most important Freudian concepts, which consists of pushing unacceptable life events and painful feelings into the unconscious, is:​

a. r​epression.
b. r​egression.
c. d​isplacement.
d. r​ationalization.

a

4

The ego defense mechanism in which a person exhibits behavior that clearly shows signs of reverting to less mature stages is ________?​

a. f​ixation
b. r​ationalization
c. r​egression
d. i​ntrojection

c

5

Attributing to others the qualities or traits that are unacceptable to our own ego is best described as:

a. d​isplacement.
b. i​ntrojection.
c. r​eaction formation.
d. p​rojection.

d

6

Resolution of sexual conflicts and sex-role identity is a critical function of the: ​

a. o​ral stage.
b. a​nal stage.
c. p​hallic stage.
d. g​enital stage.

c

7

Feelings of hostility, destructiveness, anger, rage, and hatred are associated with the: ​

a. o​ral stage.
b. a​nal stage.
c. p​hallic stage.
d. g​enital stage.

b

8

The basic aim of psychoanalytic therapy is to: ​

a. t​reat specific learning disorders.
b. c​hange overt behavior.
c. c​orrect irrational thinking.
d. m​ake the unconscious motives conscious.

d

9

A major characteristic of the classical psychoanalytic therapist is: ​

a. ​ openness and self-disclosure.
b. ​ a deeply personal and sharing relationship.
c. ​ a sense of being anonymous.
d. ​ a focus on specific behavior and an objective appraisal of learned patterns of behavior.

c

10

The “fundamental rule” for the client in psychoanalysis is:​

a. ​ forming a contract with the therapist.
b. ​ willingness to do “homework assignments.”
c. ​ participating in free association.
d. ​ writing down dreams.

c

11

A more flexible variant of psychoanalysis is:​

a. ​ psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy.
b. ​ psychoanalytically oriented reality therapy.
c. ​ superego-oriented psychotherapy.
d. ​ psychoanalytic behavior analysis.

a

12

The technique whereby the analyst explains the meaning of certain behavior is known as:​

a. ​transference.
b. r​ationalization.
c. ​countertransference.
d. i​nterpretation.

d

13

The concept of resistance can best be described as all of the following except: ​

a. ​ everything that prevents a client from producing unconscious material.
b. ​ that which needs to be analyzed and interpreted.
c. ​ an inevitable part of psychoanalytic therapy.
d. ​ it is not valuable from a theoretical and clinical perspective.

d

14

A person who manages his or her anxiety by distorting reality and failing to acknowledge painful events is most likely using: ​

a. i​ntrojection.
b. s​ublimation.
c. d​enial.
d. c​ompensation.

c

15

Directing energy toward another object or a person (when anxiety is reduced by focusing on a “safer target”) is known as:​

a. s​ublimation.
b. r​epression.
c. i​ntrojection.
d. d​isplacement.

d

16

Manufacturing “good” reasons to explain away a bruised ego, or to explain away failures or losses, is known as: ​

a. r​ationalization.
b. p​rojection.
c. d​isplacement.
d. i​ntrojection.

a

17

The young adult who adopts his parent’s outdated political beliefs to avoid unpleasant feelings of anxiety is an example of: ​

a. d​isplacement.
b. r​eaction formation.
c. s​ublimation.
d. i​ntrojection.

d

18

The ego defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations is known as: ​

a. s​ublimation.
b. c​ompensation.
c. i​ntrojection.
d. r​eaction formation.

b

19

The process of redirecting sexual energy into some form of socially acceptable behavior is known as: ​

a. d​isplacement.
b. d​enial.
c. c​ompensation.
d. s​ublimation.

d

20

The Electra complex and the Oedipus complex are associated with what psychosexual stage of development? ​

a. A​nal stage
b. G​enital stage
c. O​ral stage
d. P​hallic stage

d

21

In Freud’s view, an individual experiencing neurotic anxiety feels: ​

a. ​ he has behaved in a manner that is inconsistent with his moral code.
b. ​ a realistic threat is present in the environment.
c. ​ he will not be able to control his instincts and will behave inappropriately.
d. ​ guilt associated with past actions.

c

22

Freud used the term libido in which of the following ways?​

a. ​To refer to the death instincts
b. ​To refer to the energy of all the life instincts
c. ​To refer to sexual abuse
d. ​To account for the aggressive drive

b

23

What is the correct sequence of the psychosexual stages? ​

a. ​ Anal/phallic/latency/genital/oral
b. ​ Oral/anal/phallic/latency/genital
c. ​ Oral/anal/latency/genital/phallic
d. ​ Latency/oral/anal/phallic/genital

b

24

In Erikson’s view, the major developmental task in adolescence is:​

a. ​ intimacy vs. isolation.
b. ​ integrity vs. despair.
c. ​ identity vs. role confusion.
d. ​ initiative vs. guilt.

c

25

A person experiencing persistent feelings of inadequacy has probably had difficulty attaining a sense of _________ during the_________ stage. ​

a. ​ intimacy; young adulthood
b. ​ identity; adolescent
c. ​ integrity; later life
d. ​ industry; school age

d

26

Jacqueline feels guilty whenever she considers taking a day off from work for personal reasons. Which of the psychic structures postulated by Freud is fueling her guilty feelings?​

a. T​he id
b. T​he ego
c. T​he superego
d. T​he consciousness

c

27

Self psychology and object relations theory emphasize all of the following except:​

a. ​ the influence of critical factors in early development on later development.
b. ​ the origins, transformations and organizational functions of the self.
c. ​ the differentiation between self and others.
d. ​ different cultures maintain similar values.

d

28

Which of the following statements is not true with regard to the relational approach to psychoanalysis? ​

a. ​ The approach is based on an egalitarian model.
b. ​ There is an exploration of the subjectivities of both client and therapist.
c. ​ Countertransference provides rich information about the client's dynamics.
d. ​ Therapist anonymity is used to foster the transference relationship.

d

29

The primary aim of time limited dynamic psychotherapy is to: ​

a. ​ explore sources of childhood trauma.
b. ​ deal exclusively with a single presenting problem.
c. ​ change the client's repetitive patterns of relating to others.
d. ​ bring about catharsis.

c

30

The main function of the ego is to: ​

a. ​ inhibit id impulses.
b. ​ seek pleasure in life.
c. ​ mediate between the instincts and the surrounding environment.
d. ​ strive for perfection.

c

31

All of the following are true about the superego except:

a. ​ it is the judicial branch of personality.
b. ​ it is the internalization of the standards of parents and society.
c. ​ it governs, controls and regulates the personality.
d. ​ it inhibits id impulses.

c

32

Henry has the impulse to gamble excessively whenever he goes to Las Vegas. Aware of this, he has decided to turn down a job offer in Las Vegas to avoid the temptation to gamble. What part of Henry’s personality helped him to reach this decision?​

a. T​he id
b. T​he ego
c. T​he superego
d. T​he unconscious

c

33

If a person becomes fixated in the oral stage of development, later personality problems may include all of the following except:

a. ​ rejecting others’ love.
b. ​ fear of intimate relationships.
c. ​ mistrust of others.
d. ​ high self-esteem.

d

34

According to Erickson, the basic struggle of early childhood involves: ​

a. ​ autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
b. ​ initiative vs. guilt.
c. ​ identity vs. role confusion.
d. ​ trust vs. mistrust.

a

35

The developmental crisis involving initiative vs. guilt occurs during: ​

a. s​chool age.
b. e​arly childhood age.
c. p​reschool age.
d. a​dolescence.

c

36

A person who is suffering from feelings of alienation and isolation has probably failed to achieve a sense of ___________ during the ___________stage of development. ​

a. ​ identity; adolescence
b. ​ trust; infancy
c. ​ generativity; middle age
d. ​ intimacy; young adulthood

d

37

Developmentally, Freud’s latency stage corresponds to Erickson’s stage of: ​

a. ​ trust versus mistrust.
b. ​ intimacy versus isolation.
c. ​ initiative versus guilt.
d. ​ industry versus inferiority.

d

38

From a multicultural perspective, classical analysis may display all of the following characteristics except:

a. ​ discourage clients who do not hold upper-middle-class values.
b. ​ be problematic for clients from cultures that prefer a directive approach.
c. ​ underscore the role of important cultural and political factors in the client’s world.
d. ​ ambiguity is not inherent in most psychoanalytic approaches.

d

39

All of the following are a part of Jung’s view of development except:

a. i​ndividuation.
b. t​he shadow.
c. s​ymbiosis.
d. c​ollective unconscious.

c

40

Who developed the object-relations view that focuses on separation and individuation? ​

a. ​Perls
b. S​atir
c. R​ogers
d. M​ahler

d

41

Because ego and consciousness are not the same, the slogan for psychoanalysis has shifted from “making the unconscious conscious” to:​

a. ​ “making the ego conscious.”
b. ​ “where there was id, let there be ego.”
c. ​ “get rid of the id, kid!”
d. ​ “may the force be within you.”

b

42

In order to meet the goals of psychoanalytic treatment, Rhonda must help her eating disordered clients to:​

a. ​ reduce their symptoms and resolve their internal conflicts.
b. ​ replace negative self-talk with positive self-talk.
c. ​ make use of programs such as Weight Watchers or the Atkins diet plan.
d. ​ increase their support networks and develop social interest.

a

43

Which of the following is not a component of the brief psychodynamic approaches?​

a. ​ Use of interpretation early in the therapeutic relationship
b. ​ Targeting a specific interpersonal problem during the first session
c. ​ The therapist functioning as a blank slate
d. ​ Developing a strong working alliance

c

44

All of the following are true about a therapist's countertransference reactions except:

a. ​ they should be avoided.
b. ​ they have the potential to interfere with effective treatment.
c. ​ they can provide rich understanding of the client's experience.
d. ​ they should be carefully monitored by the therapist.

a

45

Which of the following statements is true about the relationship a client has with his or her analyst?​

a. ​The client is free to express any idea or feeling as long as it is not scandalous.
b. ​The analyst is free to engage in spontaneous self-expression if a client makes an erroneous comment.
c. The client is free to express any idea or feeling, no matter how irresponsible, scandalous, politically incorrect, selfish, or infantile.
d. The client is encouraged to use "solution talk" and avoid talking about problems.

c

46

In object-relations theory, later relationships build upon: ​

a. ​ the child’s search for approval from the father.
b. ​ one’s birth order.
c. ​ one’s striving to overcome felt inferiority.
d. ​ the child’s search for a reconnection with the mother.

d

47

Which statement below is not accurate with regard to the phenomenon of countertransference?​

a. ​Countertransference reactions are the weakest source of data for understanding the world of the client since they are so biased.
b. ​Countertransference reactions are inevitable because all therapists have unresolved conflicts and personal vulnerabilities that are activated through their professional work.
c. ​Most research on countertransference has dealt with its deleterious effects and how to manage these reactions.
d. ​It is critical that therapists monitor their own feelings during therapy sessions and use their responses as a source for increased self-awareness and understanding of their clients.

a

48

Individuals who display exhibitionistic traits, seek attention and admiration from others, and are extremely selfabsorbed might have which of the following personality disorders? ​

a. N​arcissistic
b. D​ependent
c. B​orderline
d. O​bsessive­-compulsive

a

49

A person with a __________ personality disorder is characterized by instability, irritability, self-destructive acts, impulsive anger, and extreme mood shifts. This person is lacking a clear sense of identity, has poor impulse control, and an inability to tolerate anxiety.

a. n​arcissistic
b. d​ependent
c. b​orderline
d. o​bsessive­-compulsive

c

50

The range of emotionally charged responses such as withdrawal, anger, love, annoyance, powerlessness, avoidance, overidentification, control, and sadness of the therapist are often associated with:​

a. ​transference.
b. w​orking­-through.
c. i​nterpretation.
d. ​countertransference.

d

51

true or false

The ego is the original structure of personality.​

false

52

true or false

The Freudian view of human nature is deterministic.​

true

53

true or false

Traditional analytic therapists make more frequent interpretations of transferences and engage in fewer supportive interventions than is the case with psychodynamic therapists.​

true

54

true or false

Freud postulated the concepts of both life instincts and death instincts.​

true

55

true or false

According to Freud, consciousness constitutes the largest part of one’s psychological functioning.​

false

56

true or false

Ego-defense mechanisms, by their very nature, imply psychopathology.​

false

57

true or false

Freud postulated the theory of sexuality.​

true

58

true or false

The major developmental task of the anal stage is acquiring a sense of trust.​

false

59

true or false

During the anal stage, children typically experience a range of negative feelings, including rage, hate, and hostility.​

true

60

true or false

According to Freudians, greediness and hoarding may develop as a result of not getting oral needs properly met.

true

61

true or false

The phallic stage typically occurs during the ages of 1 to 3.​

false

62

true or false

The latency stage occurs between the ages of 5 to 12.​

true

63

true or false

The Oedipal complex and the Electra complex are associated with the genital stage of development.​

false

64

true or false

Analytic therapists view transference as a factor that results from ineffective intervention on the therapist’s part.

false

65

true or false

Typically, analytically oriented therapists assume an anonymous stance, which is sometimes called the “blank screen” approach, as a necessary way to foster transference.​

true

66

true or false

Free association is one of the basic tools used to gain access to the unconscious.​

true

67

true or false

Analytically oriented therapists typically interpret free associations, dreams, resistances, and transferences.

true

68

true or false

Clients in analytic therapy typically free associate to various symbols in their dreams.​

true

69

true or false

Resistance, in the analytic view, results from either a conscious unwillingness on the part of the client to cooperate, or from the ineptness of the therapist in developing a sound therapeutic program.​

false

70

true or false

The analysis of transference is a central technique in psychoanalysis.​

true

71

true or false

Psychoanalysis provides therapists with a conceptual framework for looking at behavior and understanding the origins and functions of present symptoms.

true

72

true or false

The relational model of psychoanalysis regards therapy as an interactive process between the client and therapist.​

true

73

true or false

The relational model of psychoanalysis downplays the role of countertransference.​

false

74

true or false

Brief psychodynamic therapies target specific interpersonal problems during the initial session.​

true

75

true or false

Brief psychodynamic therapists tend to assume an active role in the therapy process.​

true

76

true or false

Psychodynamic group leaders do not interpret their client’s transferences. ​

false

77

true or false

The working-through process consists of repetitive and elaborate explorations of unconscious material and defenses, most of which originated in early childhood.​

true

78

true or false

In psychodynamic group work, symbolic figures from a client’s past may emerge.​

true

79

true or false

The psychoanalytic approach provides practitioners with a framework for understanding the origins and functions of symptoms. ​

true