Bio II - Test 1

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Campbell Biology
Chapters 27-30
Chapters 27-30
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1

3 most common shapes of prokaryotes

1. spheres (cocci)

2. rods (bacilli)

3. sprials

2

A network of sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides that make up bacterial walls

peptidoglycan

3

Polysaccharide that covers some prokaryotes

capsule

4

Allows some prokaryotes stick to substrates or other individuals in colony

fimbrae

5

Longer than fimbriae and allow prokaryotes to exchange DNA

pili

6

Ability to move toward or away from any stimulus in a heterogenous environment

Taxis

7

Taxis of chemicals

Chemotaxis

8

Key structure involved in taxis

Flagella

9

Do prokaryotes or eukaryotes have less DNA?

Prokaryotes

10

Shape of chromosome in most prokaryotes

Circular

11

Region in prokaryotes that is unbound and houses DNA

Nucleoid

12

How prokaryotes reproduce every 1-3 hours

Binary fission

13

Key features of reproduction in prokaryotes

  • small
  • use binary fission
  • short generation times
14

Formed by many prokaryotes; metabolically inactive and remain viable in harsh conditions for centures

Endospores

15

3 factors that contribue to the genetic diversity of prokaryotes

1. rapid reproduction

2. mutation

3. genetic recombination

16

Process by which a prokaryotic cell can take up and incorporate foreign naked DNA from the surrounding environment

Transformation

17

The movement of genes between bacteria and bacteriophages

Transduction

18

Viruses that infect bacteria

Bacteriophagues

19

The process where genetic materials is transferred between prokaryotic cells

Conjugation

20

Piece of DNA required for the production of pili

F factor

21

Carry genes for antbiotic resistance

R plasmid

22

How are prokaryotes classified?

how they obtain energy and carbon

23

Obtain energy from light

phototrophs

24

Obtain energy from chemicals

chemotrophs

25

Require CO2 as a carbon source

autotrophs

26

Require an organic nutrient to make organic compounds

heterotrophs

27

Rrequires O2 for cell respiration

obligate aerobes

28

Poisoned by O2 and use fermintation or anaerobic respiration

obligate anaerobes

29

Can survive with or without O2

facultative anaerobes

30

What element is essential for the production of amino acids and nucleic acids?

Nitrogen

31

Some prokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3)

nitrogen fixation

32

_____________ has allowed for more rapid sequencing of prokaryote genomes

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

33

Archaea able to live in extreme environment

extremophiles

34

Live in high saline environments

extreme halophiles

35

Live in high temp environments

extreme thermophiles

36

Live in swamps and marshes and produce methane as a waste product

mathenogens

37

Where do chlamidya live?

Animal cells

38

What does spiro cause?

syphillis

39

Both organisms benefit

nutualism

40

One benefists, one is unaffected

commensalism

41

Organism called parasite damages its host

parasitism

42

Secreted and cause disease even if producers are not present

exotoxins

43

Secreted when animals die

endotoxins

44

The use of organisms to remove pollutants from the environment

bioremediations

45

Photoautotrophs contain _________

chloroplast

46

____________ absorb organic molecules or ingest large food molecules

heterotrophs

47

____________ mix photosynthesis and heterotrophic behaviors

mixotroph

48

5 eukarya super groups

1. Excavata

2. Chromaveolata

3. Rhizaria

4. Archaeplastid

5. Unikonta

49

Characterized by exoskeleton

excavata

50

Includes diplomonads and parabasalids

excavata

51

Contain modified mitochondria called mitosomes

diplomonads

52

Responsible for traveler's diarrhea

diplomonads

53

Contain reduced mitochondria called hydrenosomes

parabasalids

54

Responsible for trichomonas vaginalis

parabasalids

55

Contain single mitochondran with an organized mass of DNA called kinetoplast

eugleonzoans

56

Responsible for sleeping sickness in humans

eugleonzoans

57

Contains membrane-bound sacs just under plasma membrane

alveolata

58

Three types of alveolata

1. dinoflagellates

2. apicomplexans

3. ciliata

59

Contains two flagella, each reinforced by cellulose plates

dinoflagellates

60

Responsible for "red tide"

dinoflagellates

61

Animal parasites that cause serious human diseases

apicomplexans

62

Infectious cells used to spread to host

sporozoites

63

Contains complex of organelles specialized for penetration in host cells and tissues

apicomplexan apex

64

Contains two nucleae

ciliata

65

Responsible for malaria

plasmodium

66

paramecium caudatum

ciliata

67

Hairy flagellum paired with smooth flagellum

stramenophila

68

Major component of phytoplankton

diatoms

69

Fossilized diatom walls

diatomaceous earth

70

Form of diatomaceous earth used in laboratories for filtering

Kieselguhr

71

Brown algae

stramenopiles

72

Algal body

thallus

73

Anchors the stem

holdfast

74

Eukaryotic super group containing amoebas

rhizaria

75

Named for porous, generally multicelled chambers called tests

forams

76

Immediate ancestors of land plants

archaeplastida

77

Accessory pigment that causes red color; masks choloroplast

phycoerythrin

78

Phycoerythrin is found in __________

red algae

79

Plants descend from ________

green algae

80

Two types of green algae

1. charophytes

2. chlorophytes

81

Includes animals, fungi, and some protists

unikonts

82

Lobe-like amoebas

amoebozoans

83

Common unicellular amoebas in soil and water

gymnamoebas

84

Causes amebic dysentery, the 3rd leading cause of human death due to eukaryotic parasites

Entamoeba histolytica

85

How long ago did plants start appearing?

500 MYA

86

4 key traits of land plants:

1. rings of cellulose-synthesizing complexes

2. peroxizome enzyme

3. structure of flagellated sperm

4. phramophytes

87

Helps cells break apart during mitosis/meiosis

phramoplasts

88

Land plants with embryos

embryophytes

89

4 key traits present in land plants but absent in charophytes

1. alternation of generations and multicellular, dependent embryos

2. walled spores produced in sporangia

3. multicellular gametangia

4. apical meristems

90

Waxy covering of epidermis

cuticle

91

Symbiosis between plants and fungi that help plants get nutrients

mychorizae

92

2 groups of seedless vascular plants

1. lycophytes

2. pterophytes

93

Club mosses and their relatives

lycophytes

94

Ferns and their relatives

pterophytes

95

Embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat

seed