Biology Exam 1

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1

Biology

Scientific study of life

2

What is science?

An approach to understanding the natural world that is based on inquiry

3

Data

Recorded observations

4

How can we define life?

Order

Regulation

Growth and development

energy utilization

response

reproduction

evolution

5

Biology studied on how many levels?

  1. Biosphere – all life and all places where life exists
  2. Ecosystem – all living and non-living organisms in a particular area
  3. Community – all organisms in an ecosystem
  4. population – groups of interacting individuals of same species
  5. Organisms - an individual living thing
  6. Organ systems and organ – two or more organs in organ system
  7. Tissue – group of similar cells performing a specific function
  8. Cell – smallest unit that can display the characteristics of life
  9. Organelle – functional components of cells (Smaller structure inside a cell)
  10. Molecules and atoms – atoms are chemical units, molecules are clusters of chemical units (Smallest biology can study)
6

Smallest level of organization that displays all of the properties of life?

cell

7

Scientific method?

Scientific investigation involving the observation of phenomina , the formulation of a hypothesis concerning the phenomena, and experimentation to demonstrate the true or falseness of the hypoth.

8

Hypothesis?*

A proposed answer to a set of observations

9

Theory

Explanation supported by abundant evidence

10

Ecosystem?*

all the living organisms in an area and the nonliving parts of the area and the interactions amongst all these living and nonliving parts.

11

Nutrients are recycled and _____ flows ?

Energy

12

The air we breathe is made up of?

70% Nitrogen and 20% oxygen

13

All organisms are composed of?

cells

14

Prokaryotic cell

Smaller and simpler structure, DNA concentrated in nucleoid region not enclosed by membrane, lack most organelles.

15

Eukaryotic Cell?

Larger more complex structure, nucleus enclosed, contains many types of organelles.

16

Cell Theory?

All living things have at least the cellular level of organization.

17

All cells carry what?

Genetic information in which they pass to their offspring in the form of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid).

18

Who is Rachel Carson?*

She wrote the book “Silent Spring” which was the key publication for the modern environmental movement. (Ecology and Evolutionary biology are related)

19

Precautionary Principle?

Don’t do something if the consequences are uncertain or possibly dangerous.

20

What derives changes through nat. selection?*

Organisms ability to adapt to their environment.

21

Taxonomy?

A branch of biology that names and classifies species.

22

What are the units of classification of life?

  1. Domain
  2. Kingdom
  3. Phylum
  4. Class
  5. Order
  6. Family
  7. Genus
  8. Species *Use Genus and species name together

(In order from largest to smallest)

23

What are the largest 3 Domains?

Bacteria

Archaea

Eukarya

24

Eukarya has 3 smaller divisions?

  1. Plantae – All plants
  2. Fungi – Ex mushrooms
  3. Animalia – All Animals

(protists= 4th group within this domain)

25

What is the most important unifying concept in modern biology?

The theory of Evolution by natural selection

26

Unifying concept of Evolution created by who?

Charles Darwin (in 1859)

27

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

What are the major themes of Biology? *

28

What are the major themes of Biology

  1. Evolution
  2. Structure/ Function
  3. Information Flow
  4. Energy transformations
  5. Interconnections within systems

A change in population over time in genetically determined characteristics.

(remember individuals don’t evolve, populations evolve)

The way in which we learn about the world.

29

What is evolution?

A change in population over time in genetically determined characteristics.

(remember individuals don’t evolve, populations evolve)

The way in which we learn about the world.

30

Scientific Inquiry?

Science done through observation of the physical or natural world. (Darwin’s work)

31

Is the scientific process done in isolation?

no

32

Who is Jane Goodall?*

An anthropologist who transformed the way we understand chimpanzees, other animals, and our role in caring for the planet.

33

Serendipity?

luck

ex: Flemings discovery of penecillin

34

What are the steps of the scientific method?

  1. Observation
  2. Question
  3. Hypothesis
  4. Prediction
  5. Experiment
35

How does the average person encounter science?

Technology *it applies scientific knowledge

*Society is technology dependent

36

What is Photosynthesis?*

It takes CO2 and H20 + energy given (Sun light) and makes

C6 H12 O6 + O2 (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen) aka Glucose

37

What is the reverse of photosynthesis?

Cellular respiration (Phot. And CL = the carbon cycle)

38

What is a species?

A group of organisms that live in the same place and the same time and have potential to breed together.

39

What are autotrophs?

An organism that produces its own food.

40

What are heterotrophs?

An organism that cannot create its own food and must consume other organisms or plants.

41

Matter (CH2)

Anything that occupies space and has mass.

42

What is matter composed of?

Elements

43

Element

A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical methods.

44

Atom

Smallest unit of an element that retains the characteristics of an element.

45

Atomic Number

top #

# of protons

46

Average atomic mass

bottom #

sum of protons and neutrons

47

Compound

A substance formed by the chemical reaction of two or more elements. The elements in a compound are combined in fixed ratios.

Ex: H2O

48

Elements required for life:

C,H,N,O,P,S,Ca,K,Na,Cl,Mg

aka:

Carbon(C), hydrogen(H), nitrogen(N), oxygen(O), Phosphorus(P), Sulfur(S), Calcium(CA), Potassium(K), sodium(Na), Chlorine(Cl), Magnesium(Mg)

49

What is Oxygen gas?

O2

50

Which four elements are most abundant in cells?

C,H,N,O

51

How many of the 92 naturally occurring elements are used by living organisms?

25

52

Proton

Subatomic particle with single unit of POS charge, in nucleus, has mass

53

Neutron

Electrically neutral, outside of nucleus in elct cloud

54

Electron

Subatomic particle with a NEG charge, has mass, in nucleus, has mass

55

Mass is determined by

# of protons and neutrons (bc electrons have no weight!)

56

All atoms of C have 6 _______but the # of _____ varies.

Protons, neutrons

57

Isotopes

A variant form of an atom, different isotopes of an element have the same # of protons and different # of neutrons.

58

When sodium ionizes it becomes?

Neutral

59

Radioactive Isotopes

one in which the nucleus decays spontaneously

60

Chemical bond

An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms.

61

Ions

atoms or molecules that are electrically charged as a result of gaining or losing electrons.

62

Molecules

A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.

63

Ionic bond

An attraction between two ions with opposite electrical charges.

64

Covalent bond

When two atoms share one or more electrons

65

Polar Covalent

bonds have opposite charges on opposite ends.

66

Non-polar Covalent

the electronegativity of atoms is equal

67

Hydrogen bond

weak chemical bond formed when a partially positive hydrogen atom from one polar molecule is attracted to the partially negative atom in another molecule (or in another part of the same molecule).

68

Polar molecule

one with uneven distribution of charge that creates two poles, 1 Pos and 1 Neg.

69

What occupies the space around the nucleus?

Energy shells

70

What makes it easier to ionize?

a decreasing number of electrons on the outermost shell

71

How many electrons are on the 1st shell? 2nd? 3rd?

2,8,8

72

Columns have the same amount of energy shells and the same amount of_____?

Reactivity

73

How are elements arranged on the periodic table of elements?

mass, e- # in the outer shell, and the number of shells

74

Why are radioisotopes useful medical tools?

because the emission of energy and subatomic particles is traceable.

75

Radioactive decay can transform an isotope into_________?

an atom of a different element

76

What is radiocarbon dating used for?

to measure the age of a sample.

77

What can ionizing radiation lead to?

Acute high level exposure leads to death

Chronic exposure can lead to increased incidence of cancer or other diseases.

78

What happened in the Chernobyl reactor of 1986 in Ukraine?

31 workers died within weeks and thyroid cancer in children increased 10x.

79

What happened in the Fukushima Dai Nuclear reactor meltdown of 2011?

damage to the plants electrical systems disabled the reactors cooling system.

80

E- in outer most shell (valence e-) determines what?

the chemical reactivity.

81

In what ways to atoms want to fill their outer most shell with e-?

1. sharing e- with another atom

2. giving up an e-

3. accepting an e- from another atom

82

cohesion

the tendency of molecules of the same kind to stick together

83

Chemical reactions

bonds are broken and reformed (no atoms are created or destroyed)

84

How much of earths surface is covered by water?

greater than 75%

85

what % of cells are water?

70-95%

86

4 Major properties of water

1. cohesion (water stick together)(high surface tension)

2. moderation of temperature(resist changing temp)

3. floating of ice (Ice=least dense, causes floating)

4. solvent for polar substances

87

Surface tension

measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid

88

Temperature?

measure of average kinetic energy of molecules

89

Specific Heat?

the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of substance to change 1 deg. (water has high SH)

90

Heat of vaporization?

Among of heat needed for 1 g of substance to be converted from liquid to gas.

91

Evaporative cooling?

when water evaporates from a body carrying away heat, which leaves the body cooler.

92

Hydrophilic

water loving

93

Hydrophobic

water hater

94

Amphipathic?

having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts

95

Ph

a measurement of the concentration of Hydrogen Ions in a solution

96

What is PH measured in?

Moles/ liter (molar)

97

Ph scale is __________ and ___________.

Inverse, logarithmic

98

When do Hydrogen(H) ions form?

When an H atom loses its electron

99

Acids ionize giving off____?

H+

100

What is bad about increased ph in the ocean

impedes the ability of ocean life to form

101

What is the Schrodinger model?

shows it isn't possible to know where an electron is at any given time.

102

Who is Friedrich Wohler

first to synthesize urea

103

Organic Compound?

a chemical compound containing the element of carbon (and usually Hydrogen) whether produced naturally or synthetically

Exceptions: carbonates, bicarbonates, cyanates, carbonic acid, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide (bc they are inorganic)

104

What are the 3 types of models?

1. Structural formula

2. Ball-and-stick modal

3. space-filling modal

105

Valence shell

the outermost shell

106

Carbon has a valence of how many electrons?

4

107

Properties of inorganic molecules depends on what?

C-skeletons

108

Polymerization?

small inorganic molecules linking together to for very large organic molecules

109

Polysacharride

long chains of sugars or complex carbo hydrates

110

Monosacharride

simple sugars

also the main fuel molecules of the cell

111

Name a monosacharride

glucose

112

Disacharride

double sugar

113

Dehydration reaction vs hydrolysis?

DR - building polymer chain

Hyd- breaking a polymer chain

114

What are the four families of organic molecules?

Monomeric Polymeric Example

1. Monosacharride Polysacharrides Starch

2. Amino Acids Proteins Albumin

3. Fatty acids Lipids Tryglyceride

4. Nucleotides Nucleic Acids DNA

115

The exoskeleton of invertebrates has an exoskeleton made of ______?

Fungi

116

Fats are known as _______?

Lipids (they are amphipathic)

117

What are the cellular function of lipids?

1. Food source

2. Energy Source

3. Membrane structure

118

Fatty Acids are stored as fats & oils in the form of triglycerides

triglycerides

119

Define Saturated fats? What state are they in at room temperature?

hydrocarbon chains contain maximum number of hydrogens, therefore have no double covalent bonds. Solid at room temperature.

120

Define Unsaturated fats? What state are they in at room temperature?

hydrocarbon chains lack the maximum number of hydrogen atoms, therefore have one or more covalent bonds. Liquid at room temperature.

121

What is the main component of biological membranes?

phospholipids, they have a glycerol backbone, tow fatty acids, and an additional functional group attached.

122

_________ is a lipid, and always has a carbon skeleton with four fuzed rings Hint

steroids

123

What steroid acts as the molecular building block of the human steroid hormones?

Cholesterol

124

What is hydrogenation?

converting saturated fats into unsaturated fats by adding hydrogen

125

What do all amino acids share?

functional groups

126

What is a peptide bond?

the bond that joins adjacent amino acids

127

Polypeptide

Long chain of amino acids

128

What are the building blocks for protein

amino acids

129

what are the major types of protein?

structure, storage, contractile, transport, enzymes

130

Enzymes?

catalysts for reactions

131

The majority of enzymes are _________ molecules.

protein

132

A functional protein consists of?

one or more polypeptides that has been precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique shape.

133

The function of protein is an emergent property resulting from its specific _____________

molecular order

134

Proteins have 3 levels of structure...

Primary, secondary, and tertiary

135

What is a quaternary structure?

protein with four polypeptides

136

What are the 3 types of nucleotides?

1. nitrogenous base

2. phosphate group

3. five carbon sugar

137

Nucleotides are the building block for?

Nucleic acids

138

Gene?

a unit of inheritance encoded in a specific stretch of DNAw

139

what is a sugar phosphate backbone

a repeating pattern of sugar phosphate with the bases hanging off the backbone like appendages

140

Double helix?

the form assumed by DNA in living cells, referring to its two adjacent polynucletide strands would into a spiral shape.

141

DNA contains ____ polynucleotide strands, each composed of ____ kinds of nucleotides.

2, 4

142

In DNA strands A pairs with____and G pairs with ____.

A=T

G=C

143

Which type of fats are least healthy?

Trans fats.

144

What type of fats are especially healthy?

omega 3s

145

What are the monomers of all proteins?

amino acids

146

Which of these is not made of enzymes?

Hair, muscle, cellulose, enzymes

cellulose