Chapter 1

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1

What is the proper name for the specialized area of biology that deals with living things ordinarily too small to be seen with the naked eye?

A)bacteriology

B)immunology

C)microbiology

D)mycology

C)microbiology

2

The field of immunology studies the immune response to various factors. What is the name of an inappropriate immune response?

A)sneezing

B)autoimmunity

C)fever

D)infection

B)autoimmunity

3

Microorganisms are currently being used to soften denim in "stonewashed" blue jeans. This example of manipulating microorganisms to make products useful for industrial processes is called

A)epidemiology.

B)food microbiology.

C)bioremediation.

D)biotechnology.

D)biotechnology.

4

Microorganisms that carry out photosynthesis include

A)helminths & protozoans.

B)viruses & prokaryotes.

C)algae & bacteria.

D)plants & animals.

C)algae & bacteria.

5

_____________ is a vital aspect of microbial nutrient recycling. Without it, we would be drowning in our own wastes.

A)Photosynthesis

B)Decomposition

C)Biogenesis

D)Parasitism

B)Decomposition

6

Greenhouse gases create an insulation layer in the atmosphere and help retain heat for our planet Earth. Much of this gas is produced by microorganisms living in the environment and in the digestive tracts of animals. Identify a greenhouse gas that can be produced primarily by microorganisms.

A)oxygen

B)propane

C)sulfur

D)methane

D)methane

7

When scientists deliberately alter DNA and exchange or modify the genetic material from one species to another, they are engaging in

A)genetic engineering.

B)cloning.

C)bioremediation.

D)epidemiology.

A)genetic engineering.

8

Recently, microorganisms have been used to clean up oil spills in the oceans of the world. This is an example of

A)agricultural microbiology.

B)food microbiology.

C)bioremediation.

D)epidemiology.

C)bioremediation.

9

The term "pathogenic" refers to microorganisms that are

A)harmless.

B)harmful.

C)prokaryotic.

D)eukaryotic.

B)harmful.

10

When we look at infectious disease statistics for the global human population as a whole, we find the number one cause of death is

A)malaria.

B)parasitic diseases such as worms.

C)respiratory infections.

D)heart disease.

C)respiratory infections.

11

Disease spread in poorer countries of the world is increased by

A)inadequate medical care.

B)lack of immunizations and antibiotics.

C)malnourishment.

D)all of the above.

D)all of the above.

12

Historically, gastric ulcers were thought to be caused by stress. Recent medical discoveries now link gastric ulcers to

A)diet.

B)age.

C)a bacterial infection.

D)a viral infection.

C)a bacterial infection.

13

Parasites

A)live off dead material.

B)derive all their required foods directly from the nonliving environment.

C)require a host.

D)are nonpathogenic.

C)require a host.

14

Identify the individual who attempted to disprove spontaneous generation by placing meat in jars with various coverings with the purpose of attracting flies.

A)Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

B)Francesco Redi

C)John Tyndall

D)Dr. David Satcher

B)Francesco Redi

15

Identify the individual who disproved spontaneous generation by using a swan-neck flask to show that air and dust were the source of microbes.

A)Carl Woese

B)Theodore Schwann

C)John Needham

D)Louis Pasteur

D)Louis Pasteur

16

The individual credited with the initial description of endospores (as being highly heat resistant microbes) is

A)Robert Koch.

B)John Tyndall.

C)Louis Pasteur.

D)Carl von Linnaeus.

B)John Tyndall.

17

The first scientist to clearly link a specific microorganism to a specific disease was

A)Robert Koch.

B)John Tyndall.

C)Francesco Redi.

D)Joseph Lister.

A)Robert Koch.

18

Scientific method

A)explains natural phenomena using argument, superstition, and belief.

B)is subjective.

C)formulates an hypothesis and tests it.

D)proves theories.

C)formulates an hypothesis and tests it.

19

Select the scientific name in binomial nomenclature that is properly written.

A) Bacillus Anthracis

B) Bacillus anthracis

C) bacillus Anthracis

D) bacillus anthracis

B) Bacillus anthracis

20

The orderly arrangement of organisms into groups through the use of a format that shows evolutionary relationships is called

A)phylogeny.

B)classification.

C)nomenclature.

D)morphology.

A)phylogeny.

21

The most inclusive level of the taxonomic hierarchy is the

A)species.

B)genus.

C)order.

D)domain.

D)domain.

22

When we move from the animal kingdom to the plant kingdom, we use the term "division" rather than the term

A)family.

B)phylum.

C)class.

D)genus.

B)phylum.

23

Which of the following is in order from most inclusive to least inclusive?

A)kingdom, phylum, order, class, family, genus, species, domain

B)domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, species, genus

C)kingdom, domain, class, phylum, family, order, genus, species

D)domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

D)domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species

24

Initially, organisms were classified into only two kingdoms (by Darwin & Haeckel). The individual who developed the five-kingdom system, which is considered traditional today was

A)Carl Woese.

B)Louis Pasteur.

C)Stephen Hawking.

D)Robert Whittaker.

D)Robert Whittaker.

25

There are three domains in taxonomy. Which domain contains humans?

A)Mammalia

B)Eukarya

C)Animalia

D)all of the above

B)Eukarya

26

The majority of microorganisms found in humans and their environment are pathogenic.

A)True

B)False

B)False

27

The top three causes of death in the United States are due to infectious diseases.

A)True

B)False

B)False

28

HIV/AIDS is one of the ten top causes of death in the United States.

A)True

B)False

B)False

29

The bacterium Chlamydia has been linked to female infertility and cervical cancer.

A)True

B)False

A)True

30

Viruses are cellular microorganisms that can sometimes cause disease.

A)True

B)False

B)False

31

Deductive reasoning proceeds from general to specific.

A)True

B)False

A)True