Ch. 28 Reproductive & Ch. 29 Development

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1

The structure protects and regulates the temperature of the testes?

Scrotum

2

This structure is the site of sperm production?

Seminiferous tubules

3

How many seminiferous tubules are found in the lobules?

1-3

4

These cells may eventually become spermatozoa?

Spermatogenic cells

5

These cells secrete testosterone?

Leydig cells

6

This hormone stimulates Leydig cells to secrete testosterone?

LH

7

This straight tubules in the testis lead into the?

Rete testis

8

The function of the epididymis is?

Sperm maturation

9

This is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ampulla of the vas deferens

Ejaculatory duct

10

This lies posterior to the bladder and anterior to the rectum and secretes an alkaline, fructose filled fluid?

Seminal glands

11

These are located inferior to the prostate on the other side of the membranous urethra within the deep muscles of the perineum?

Cowper's gland

12

This is composed of three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue each surrounded by a fibrous tissue?

Penis

13

This ligament arises from the pubic symphysis in males?

Suspensory ligament

14

What is produced by the ovaries?

Secondary oocytes, Estrogen, and Progesterone

15

This attaches the ovaries and uterus to the pelvic wall?

Suspensory ligament

16

This is the site of fertilization?

Uterine tubes

17

This is the portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina?

Cervix

18

Anterior to the vagina and urethral opening is the?

Mons pubis

19

Skene's glands secrete?

Mucus

20

_______hormone secreted by the _______ controls the ovarian and uterine cycles?

GnRH, Hypothalamus

21

This hormone promotes spermatogenesis?

Testosterone

22

This hormone triggers ovulation?

LH

23

This is secreted by the corpus luteum after ovulation?

Progesterone

24

This is the uterine phase when the endometrium becomes more vascular?

Proliferative phase

25

This is the ovarian phase between the end of the menstruation and beginning of ovulation?

Preovulatory phase

26

Fertilization normally occurs within which structure?

Fallopian tube

27

This is a series of functional changes that sperm go through when they are in the female reproductive tract?

Capacitation

28

The fusion of the secondary oocyte and the sperm results in which developmental stage?

Zygote

29

This is the part of the blastocyst that promotes implantation and produces hCG?

Trophoblast

30

This is the portion of the endometrium that lies between the embryo and the stratum basalis?

Decidua basalis

31

This develops from the epiblast and carries a protective fluid?

Amnion

32

This will become the primary structure for exchange of material between the mother the fetus?

Chorionic villi of the placenta

33

Each somite may differentiate into a?

Dermatome

34

This is the connection between the placenta and the embryo?

Umbilical cord

35

How many pairs of pharyngeal arches are there?

5

36

This exam is performed between 14-16 weeks gestation and is used to detect genetic abnormalities?

Amniocentesis

37

CVS is taking cells from where?

Chorion

38

This hormone is secreted by non-pregnant women from secretory cells in the hypothalamus?

CRH

39

During pregnancy stroke volume can increase by?

30%

40

Labor can NOT take place until all of this hormone's effects are diminished?

Progesterone

41

This is the time from the onset of labor to the complete dilation of the cervix?

Stage of dilation

42

Involution is when?

The uterus decreases in size

43

In infants this connects the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava?

Ductus venosus

44

This is a principle hormone that releases milk into the mammary ducts?

Oxytocin

45

This is a permanent change in an allele?

Mutation

46

When phenotype can be drastically different depending on parental origin it is called?

Genomic imprinting

47

An example of incomplete dominance is?

Sickle-cell disease

48

If one parent has type A blood and one parent has type B blood, what blood type is possible for their child?

AB, A, B, and O

49

If a child has B blood, and the mother has B blood, what is the possible genotype of the father?

B, O or AB

50

Chromosome #15 is considered what?

An autosome

51

A Barr body is?

An inactivated X chromosome

52

What is the function of gonads?

Produce gametes and produce hormones

53

Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into?

Lobules

54

The reproductive system includes?

Gonads & external genitalia, Ducts that receive & transport the gametes, and Accessory glands & organs that secrete fluids

55

Which of the following muscles move the testes towards the body?

Both the Cremaster & the Dartos

56

The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the?

Raphe

57

The spermatic cord is?

A bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis

58

The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the?

Tunica albuginea

59

The make reproductive system is MOST closely associated with which of the following systems?

Urinary

60

The _______ connects the seminiferous tubules to the epididymis?

Efferent ductules

61

Contraction of the cremaster muscles?

Pulls the testes closer to the body cavity

62

Contraction of the dartos muscle?

Elevates the scrotal sac

63

Sperm develop from stem cells called?

Spermatogonia

64

When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called?

Spermatocytes

65

The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by the first meiosis are called?

Secondary spermatocytes

66

The process of spermiogenesis produces?

Spermatozoa

67

The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called?

Meiosis

68

Secondary spermatocytes each contain?

23 duplicates of chromosomes

69

In a mature human spermatozoan?

The acrosome is next to the nucleus, and the head contains 23 chromosomes

70

During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes fuse together during the process called ________ to form a ________.

synapsis; tetrad

71

How many tetrads form during synapsis?

23

72

Secondary spermatocytes divide to produce ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes each.

Four; 23

73

Which of the following occurs after a spermatogonium completes cell division?

The daughter cell is directed toward the lumen of the seminiferous tubule.

74

Interstitial cells produce?

androgen-binding protein.

75

Sperm production occurs in the?

seminiferous tubules.

76

Nurse cells?

Are found in the seminiferous tubules, Form the blood-testis barrier, and Coordinate spermatogenesis.

77

Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.
1. ductus deferens
2. urethra
3. ejaculatory duct
4. epididymis

4, 1, 3, 2

78

The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the?

bulbo-urethral glands.

79

Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the?

epididymis

80

The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the?

prostate gland.

81

The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the?

epididymis.

82

The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the?

ductus deferens.

83

The organ that is posterior to the urinary bladder is (are) the?

seminal glands (seminal vesicles)

84

Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?

in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct

85

Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following, except?

production of spermatozoa.

86

Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by?

peristaltic contractions.

87

Contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles result in?

ejaculation

88

For erection to occur?

There must be sufficient blood hydrostatic pressure, The sacral spinal cord must be intact, and Nitric oxide must be present.

89

The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the?

penis

90

The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the?

prepuce

91

The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the?

corpus spongiosum

92

The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the?

corpora cavernosa.

93

Emission and ejaculation?

Occurs under sympathetic stimulation, Begins with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla, Is responsible for propelling semen into the female reproductive tract and Involves contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle

94

The primary role of FSH in males is to?

initiate sperm production in the testes.

95

The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is?

LH

96

Testosterone is secreted by the?

interstitial cells

97

A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After 3 weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?

Increased sex drive, Decreased levels of GnRH, and Decreased levels of LH and FSH

98

A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will?

Be sterile

99

Sperm cannot fertilize an ovum unless it has been in the female reproductive tract for several hours. This enhanced ability of the sperm to fertilize the ovum is called capacitation. In vitro studies indicate that freshly ejaculated sperm can fertilize the ovum if they are first rinsed in salt solution before being introduced to the ovum. These observations suggest that?

the process of capacitation involves the removal of some inhibiting substances from the sperm.

100

The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following, except that they?

secrete testosterone.

101

Interstitial cells?

Are found in the areolar tissue between the tubules, Respond to luteinizing hormone, and Produce testosterone

102

The broad ligament is?

an extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.

103

The region where blood vessels enter the ovary is called the?

ovarian hilum.

104

Each of the following statements concerning oogenesis is true, except that?

About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty

105

The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete?

Estrogens

106

This is the structure that ruptures during ovulation?

Tertiary follicle

107

The primary follicle develops from the?

primordial follicle

108

Which of the following is greater?

the number of primordial follicles in the ovaries at birth

109

The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the?

uterine tube.

110

The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the?

uterus.

111

The inferior portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the?

cervix.

112

The thick muscular layer of the uterus is the?

Myometrium.

113

Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?

infundibulum

114

The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the uterine tubes.

fundus

115

The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the?

infundibulum.

116

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?

has ciliated epithelium

117

The average length of the uterine cycle is?

28 days

118

During the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?

the functional zone of the endometrium is restored.

119

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?

consists of a basilar zone and a functional zone

120

The termination of the uterine cycle at age 45-55 is called ________.

menopause

121

All of the following are true of the vagina, except that it

loses a portion of its lining during menses.

122

The vagina is?

a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.

123

The vulva includes all of the following, except the?

vagina.

124

The space bounded by the labia minora is the?

vestibule.

125

Fatty folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and vestibule are the?

labia majora.

126

The clitoris?

Is derived from the same embryonic structures as the penis in males, Engorges with blood during sexual arousal, Is topped by a small erectile glans, and Contains erectile tissue comparable to the corpora cavernosa of the penis.

127

The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix.

fornix

128

Another term for vulva is?

female external genitalia.

129

The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the?

Areola

130

The production of milk is called?

Lactation

131

During the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?

The fertilized ovum implants, Progesterone levels are high, Endometrial glands are enlarged, and The corpus luteum is formed

132

During the menses?

the old functional layer is sloughed off.

133

The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is?

the menses.

134

The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is?

Progesterone

135

Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of?

Progesterone

136

The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers?

ovulation

137

A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for?

follicle maturation.

138

Which is the function of the ovaries?

Secretion of hormones, Production of oocytes, Formation of immature gametes, and Secretion of inhibin

139

A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in?

luteinizing hormone.

140

After ovulation, the ovary secretes?

Both estrogen and progesterone

141

A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.

the secretory phase

142

Secondary sexual characteristics?

may develop in response to testosterone or estrogen.

143

Follicle-stimulating hormone?

stimulates spermatogenesis and stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary.

144

On which of the following days would the level of GnRH be highest in a female?

first day of menses

145

After fertilization, the first cell division is completed?

more than a day later.

146

During amphimixis,

the male and female pronuclei fuse.

147

Which of the following is not part of fertilization?

completion of Meiosis I

148

The individual cells produced by cleavage are called

blastomeres.

149

The gradual modification of anatomical structures during the period from conception to maturity is

development.

150

Contact of a sperm with the oocyte membrane causes

Oocyte activation, Completion of the second meiosis, Membrane fusion, and Extrusion of the second polar body

151

Completion of cytokinesis leads to?

A doubling of blastomere number, A division of the cytoplasm into two portions, and Interphase

152

Each of the following statements concerning development is true, except that?

the first trimester is when the fetus looks distinctively human.

153

Under the influence of the trophoblast, maternal blood vessels in the endometrium?

break down and form lacunae.

154

A space opens within the inner cell mass that will form the?

amniotic cavity.

155

The process of cell division that divides the cytoplasm of the zygote among blastomeres is called?

cleavage.

156

Attachment to and penetration of the endometrium by the blastocyst is referred to as?

Implantation

157

________ are nearly identical cells that are produced by early cleavages?

Blastomeres

158

The solid ball of cells that has been likened to a mulberry is called a?

morula

159

A blastocyst is a(n)?

hollow ball of cells.

160

The inner cell mass of the blastocyst will?

form the embryo.

161

During implantation, the?

syncytial trophoblast erodes a path through the endometrium.

162

Which of these statements about the trophoblast is false?

is derived from the inner cell mass

163

During gastrulation?

three germ layers are formed.

164

The region known as the primitive streak is the site of?

migration of ectodermal cells to form the mesoderm

165

The ectoderm forms?

neural tissues.

166

The mesoderm forms?

muscle.

167

The endoderm forms?

the urinary bladder.

168

The trophoblast has many of the characteristics of ________ cells.

cancer

169

By day 12 of embryonic development, mesoderm begins to form through?

gastrulation.

170

The oval, three-layered sheet produced by gastrulation is called the ________.

embryonic disc

171

Ectoderm is to ________ as mesoderm is to ________.

nervous system; muscular system

172

The mesoderm and the trophoblast combine to form the

chorion.

173

The extraembryonic membrane that forms blood cells is the

yolk sac.

174

The extraembryonic membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac is the?

chorion.

175

All of the following are true of the allantois, except that

it acts as the fetal bone marrow.

176

Which of these is not one of the extraembryonic membranes?

umbilical cord

177

Which of the following is one of the critical events of the first trimester?

Cleavage, Implantation, Placentation, and Gastrulation

178

The hormone that increases the flexibility of the pubic symphysis during pregnancy is?

Relaxin.

179

The placenta is a source of which of these hormones?

hCG, Relaxin, Progesterone, and Placental lactogen

180

If fertilization occurs, the ________ is maintained because the embryo secretes ________.

corpus luteum; human chorionic gonadotrophin

181

The period of gestation when the rudiments of all major organ systems are established is the ________ trimester

First

182

The period of gestation that is characterized by the largest fetal weight gain and fat deposition is the ________ trimester.

Third

183

The period of gestation when organs and organ systems complete most of their development and the fetus looks distinctly human is the ________ trimester.

Second

184

Embryological and early fetal development occur in the ________ trimester.

First

185

All of the following occur during pregnancy, except that?

A woman's bladder capacity increases.

186

During gestation, contraction of the myometrium is inhibited by ________, produced by the placenta.

progesterone

187

The first stage of labor is the ________ stage.

dilation

188

The stage of labor during which the fetus emerges from the vagina is called the ________ stage.

expulsion

189

Stretching of the cervix causes an increase in the blood levels of

oxytocin

190

Progesterone calms the myometrium and prevents contraction. What factors antagonize progesterone and trigger labor and delivery?

Rising estrogen levels increase sensitivity, Rising oxytocin levels lead to uterine contractions, Distortion of the myometrium, and Distortion of the cervix

191

The prostaglandins produced in the endometrium?

stimulate smooth muscle contractions.

192

The neonatal period extends?

for the first month of life.

193

The infancy stage of life is considered to be over at?

Age 2

194

All of the following occur at puberty, except that?

GnRH levels decline.

195

Which of these hormones is the cause of most puberty related changes in a female?

estrogen

196

Which of these is a puberty related change caused by increased testosterone levels?

accelerated bone deposition and skeletal growth

197

Non-sex chromosomes are called?

Autosomal

198

The alternate forms of any one gene are called?

alleles.

199

If an individual carries a pair of alleles that are the same, the individual is ________ for the trait.

homozygous

200

If an individual carries two different alleles for the same trait, the individual is ________ for the trait.

heterozygous

201

In simple autosomal inheritance, phenotypic characters are determined, or controlled, by?

a single pair of alleles.

202

In polygenic inheritance, phenotypic characters are?

determined by interactions among several genes.

203

If a color-blind (X-linked recessive trait) man marries a woman who is heterozygous for the trait, what proportion of their male offspring can be expected to be color blind?

1/2