Psych Chapter 9

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1

Sigmund Freud believed that aggression was best described as

  1. an acquired drive
  2. an instinct or class of instincts
  3. a set of habits that have instrumental value
  4. a class of behavior designed to promote the survival of the individual and the species

an instinct or class of instincts

2

You are entering a store when a Salvation Army solicitor hits you hard on the head with his bell as he solicits donations. A strict behaviorist such as Arnold Buss (1961) would say that

  1. an aggressive act has been committed
  2. no aggressive act has been committed because the solicitor did not intend to hurt you
  3. the act is aggressive only if the solicitor knew that you are an atheist
  4. it is impossible to tell if this is an act of aggression

an aggressive act has been committed

3

Josh slugs Ismail, hoping to make him cry. _____ would classify this act as a clear example of aggression.

  1. The "behavioral" perspective on aggression
  2. The "intentional" perspective on aggression
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

4

Hostile aggression

  1. refers to harm done as a means to a nonaggressive end
  2. refers to aggressive acts in which the perpetrator's primary objective is to harm or injure the victim
  3. is rarely seen among children older than 5 or 6
  4. refers to harm done as a means to a nonaggressive end and is rarely seen among children older than 5 or 6
  5. refers to aggressive acts in which the perpetrator's primary objective is to harm or injure the victim and is rarely seen among children older than 5 or 6

refers to aggressive acts in which the perpetrator's primary objective is to harm or injure the victim

5

Aggressive acts that serve no purpose other than to harm another individual are classified as

  1. instrumental aggression
  2. retaliatory aggression
  3. hostile aggression
  4. cathartic aggression

hostile aggression

6

A mugger who attacks a victim in order to obtain the victim’s money is engaging in

  1. subliminal aggression
  2. hostile aggression
  3. instrumental aggression
  4. vicarious hostility

instrumental aggression

7

Aggressive acts that are performed for purposes of achieving some objective other than harmdoing are likely to be classified as

  1. instrumental aggression
  2. hostile aggression
  3. displaced aggression
  4. reactive aggression

instrumental aggression

8

The “social judgment” perspective on aggression

  1. would classify all harmful acts as aggressive
  2. is completely incompatible with an "intentional" perspective on aggression
  3. expects people to differ in their classification of harmful acts as aggressive or nonaggressive
  4. is completely incompatible with an "intentional" perspective on aggression and expects people to differ in their classification of harmful acts as aggressive or nonaggressive
  5. all of these

expects people to differ in their classification of harmful acts as aggressive or nonaggressive

9

Scuffles between a pair of children are more likely to be viewed as "aggressive" acts if the youngsters are females rather than males. The _____ definition of aggression best accounts for this finding.

  1. instinctual
  2. behavioral
  3. intentional
  4. social judgment

social judgment

10

In contrast to Freud's view that all humans are born with _____ that underlie(s) all aggressive acts, contemporary psychoanalysts believe that aggression _____ .

  1. a death instinct; is best described as an acquired drive
  2. a death instinct; is instinctual, but promotes life rather than self-destruction
  3. aggressive reflexes; is learned
  4. none of these

a death instinct; is instinctual, but promotes life rather than self-destruction

11

Ethologists can agree with _____ that aggression stems from instinctual impulses and often qualifies as _____ .

  1. Freud; an adaptive response
  2. contemporary psychoanalysts; a self-destructive response
  3. Freud; a self-destructive response
  4. contemporary psychoanalysts; an adaptive response

contemporary psychoanalysts; an adaptive response

12

Ethologists such as Lorenz would agree with Freud that _____ .

  1. human beings are characterized by a death instinct
  2. humans lack instinctual controls over their aggressive instinct and must learn to channel aggressive urges into socially acceptable pursuits
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

humans lack instinctual controls over their aggressive instinct and must learn to channel aggressive urges into socially acceptable pursuits

13

One valid criticism of both Freud’s psychoanalytic theory and Lorenz’s ethological theory of aggression is that

  1. there is no evidence that the human body accumulates aggressive energy
  2. there are cultures in which people display little if any intraspecies aggression
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

14

Many developmentalists are critical of ethologists’ presumption that humans lack biologically-based inhibitions against harmdoing, often citing _____ as such an inhibition.

  1. a capacity for empathy
  2. inborn nurturing instincts
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

a capacity for empathy

15

Studies of dominance hierarchies in children's play groups suggest that

  1. dominant youngsters have more pent up aggressive energy than their nondominant playmates
  2. these group structures tend to minimize rather than encourage aggressive exchanges
  3. even preschool children are proficient at resolving many disputes before they escalate into aggressive confrontations
  4. these group structures tend to minimize rather than encourage aggressive exchanges and even preschool children are proficient at resolving many disputes before they escalate into aggressive confrontations
  5. none of these

these group structures tend to minimize rather than encourage aggressive exchanges and even preschool children are proficient at resolving many disputes before they escalate into aggressive confrontations

16

Kuo's (1930) experiment with cats that were raised with rats is important because it clearly demonstrates that

  1. rat-killing by cats is an instinctive pattern of behavior
  2. social-learning experiences, such as exposure to a rat-killing mother, have little effect on kittens' tendencies to kill rats
  3. prior social experiences have dramatic effects on kittens' tendencies to-kill rats
  4. rat-killing by cats is an instinctive pattern of behavior and social-learning experiences, such as exposure to a rat-killing mother, have little effect on kittens' tendencies to kill rats
  5. none of these

prior social experiences have dramatic effects on kittens' tendencies to-kill rats

17

The original version of the frustration-aggression hypothesis specified that

  1. frustration always produces some kind of aggression
  2. aggression is always caused by some kind of frustration
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

18

According to Berkowitz's revision of the frustration-aggression hypothesis

  1. frustration produces anger or a readiness to aggress
  2. not all aggression can be traced directly to frustration
  3. aggressive cues will evoke aggressive responses from a person who is "primed" for aggression
  4. frustration produces anger or a readiness to aggress and aggressive cues will evoke aggressive responses from a person who is "primed" for aggression
  5. all of these

all of these

19

The study by Feshbach (1956) in which children played with aggressive or nonaggressive toys demonstrates the importance of _____ in promoting aggressive interactions.

  1. frustration
  2. aggressive cues
  3. attack
  4. dominance hierarchies

aggressive cues

20

Berkowitz’s revised frustration-aggression hypothesis views aggressive behavior as stemming from a combination of

  1. internal forces such as anger and external, aggressive cues
  2. instincts and aggressive cues
  3. anger and instincts
  4. instincts and aggressive cues

internal forces such as anger and external, aggressive cues

21

Bandura's social-learning theory was the first model to stress the role of _____ in promoting human aggression.

  1. anger
  2. instincts
  3. aggressive cues
  4. cognitive processes

cognitive processes

22

Evidence for Bandura's proposition that cognitive processes contribute to

human aggression can be seen in

  1. the confidence that aggressive children have that their aggressive acts will "pay off"
  2. the fact that aggressive children attach more value to the outcomes of aggression than nonaggressive children do
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these

23

According to Bandura's social-learning theory, aggressive habits may persist over time if they

  1. help aggressors to achieve their objectives
  2. are useful at terminating others' noxious behaviors
  3. are socially sanctioned by aggressive peers

d. all of these

all of these

24

Recent neuroimaging studies are consistent with Bandura’s view that ____, showing that successful aggression activates pleasure centers in the brain.

  1. can be self-reinforcing
  2. is instinctual
  3. any form of arousal instigates aggression
  4. aggression serves to reduce anger or frustration

can be self-reinforcing

25

According to Bandura's social learning theory

  1. internal arousal such as frustration or anger is not necessary for aggression to occur
  2. many forms of arousal may increase the likelihood of an aggressive response in situations where aggressive cues are present
  3. both of these
  4. none of these

both of these