Ch. 26 Urinary & Ch.27 Fluid, Acid Base Test Bank Questions

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1

Which is NOT a major function of the kidney?

Regulation of blood cell size

2

This is the formation of a new glucose molecule?

Gluconeogenesis

3

Which of the following is a waste product normally excreted by the kidneys?

Urea

4

This is smooth dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous with the outer coat of the ureter?

Renal capsule

5

The portion of the kidney that extends between the renal pyramid is called the?

Renal columns

6

Which is the correct order of blood flow?

1) Interlobular arteries, 2) Arcuate arteries, 3) Glomerular capillaries, and 4) Arcuate veins

7

Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?

1) Glomerular capsule, 2) Proximal Convoluted tubule (PCT), 3) Loop of Henle, 4) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT), 5) Collecting duct

8

Which structure of the nephron reabsorbs the most substances?

Proximal convoluted tubule

9

This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood?

Glomerular capsule

10

This term means entry of substances into the body from the filtrate?

Reabsorption

11

This is a nephron process that results in a substance in blood entering the already formed filtrate?

Secretion

12

This layer of filtration membrane is composed of collagen fibers and proteoglycans in a glycoprotein matrix?

Basal lamina

13

This occurs when stretching triggers contraction of smooth muscle walls in afferent arterioles?

Myogenic mechanism

14

This is when a substance passes from the fluid in the tubular lumen through the apical membrane then across the cytosol into the interstitial fluid?

Transcellular reabsorption

15

Once fluid enters the proximal convoluted tubule it?

Is called tubular fluid

16

The proximal convoluted tubules reabsorb what percentage of filtered water?

65%

17

Which of the following is a way angiotensin II affects the kidneys?

It increases GFR

18

Urea recycling can cause a build up of urea in the?

Renal medulla

19

Increased secretion of Hydrogen ions would result in a _______of blood ________?

Decreases; pH

20

Increased secretion of Aldosterone would result in a ________ of blood ________?

Increases; Sodium

21

The ascending loop of Henle is impermeable to?

Water

22

An analysis of the physical, chemical and microscopic properties of urine is called?

Urinalysis

23

Water accounts for what percentage of the total volume of urine?

95%

24

This is a test to measure kidney function?

Plasma creatinine

25

This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder?

Ureter

26

This layer of the ureter is composed of connective tissue, elastic and collagen fibers?

Lamina propria

27

This lies in the anterior cornea of the trigone of the bladder?

Internal urethral orifice

28

Ho much of the total volume of body fluid is intracellular fluid?

2/3

29

80% of the extracellular fluid is?

Interstitial fluid

30

This is the largest single component of the human body?

Water

31

This is produced when electrons are accepted by oxygen during cellular respiration?

Metabolic water

32

This occurs when water loss is greater than water gain?

Dehydration

33

The response of the body to decreasing blood pressure will NOT cause which of the following?

Increased vasoconstriction

34

This is the main factor that determines body fluid volume?

Urinary salt loss

35

Which of the following is used to promote Na reabsorption by the kidneys?

Aldosterone

36

Which of the following is used to promote water reabsorption by the kidneys?

Antidiuretic hormone

37

A decline in angiotensin II levels does NOT result in?

Increased Calcium reabsorption

38

The major hormone that regulates water loss is?

ADH

39

Water intoxication results from?

Dilute body fluids and a decrease in the osmolarity of interstitial fluids

40

Which of the following is a function of an electrolyte in the body?

Controlling osmosis between compartments, Maintaining acid-base balance, Carry electrical currents, and serve as cofactors

41

In extracellular fluid the most abundant cation is?

Na+

42

In extracellular fluid the most abundant anion is?

Cl-

43

In intracellular fluid the most abundant cation is?

K+

44

In intracellular fluid the most abundant anion is?

(HPO4)-2

45

The Na+ level in blood is controlled by?

Aldosterone

46

This occurs between RBC and blood plasma as the blood level of carbon dioxide increases or decreases?

Chloride shift

47

This is the most abundant mineral in the body?

Calcium

48

PTH, calcitriol and calcitonin are?

The main regulators of calcium in the blood

49

Most of the phosphate in a body is present as?

Calcium phosphate salt

50

Buffer systems, exhaling carbon dioxide and excretion by the kidneys are all?

Ways to eliminate H+ from the body?

51

Metabolic reactions can produce?

Nonvolatice acids

52

This is a condition where blood pH is below 7.35?

Acidosis

53

In partial compensation?

Systemic arterial blood is still lower than 7.35

54

Inadequate exhalation of carbon dioxide can cause?

Blood pH to drop

55

This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood HCO3 levels drop significantly (below 22 mEq/liter)?

Metabolic acidosis

56

This imbalance results when systemic arterial blood CO2 levels raise to abnormal values?

Respiratory acidosis

57

This is the most common cause of metabolic alkalosis?

Vomiting

58

The rate of fluid intake and outtake is how much higher in an infant than in an adult?

7 times higher

59

The breathing rate of an infant causes?

Greater water loss from the lungs

60

Which of the following is NOT a function of the urinary system?

Excretes excess albumin molecules

61

Urine is eliminated through the?

Urethra

62

Urine is carried to the urinary bladder by?

The ureters

63

Each of the following organs is part of the urinary system, except the?

Rectum

64

All of the following are true of the kidneys, except that they are?

Located partly within the pelvic cavity

65

The prominent indentation on the medial surface of the kidney is the?

Hilum

66

Which of the following is NOT an important function of the kidney?

Excretion of excess albumen

67

Functions of the urinary system include?

Regulation of blood volume and blood pressure, Regulation of plasma concentration of certain ions, Helping to stabilize blood pH, and Conservation of valuable nutrients

68

The left kidney lies ______ to the right kidney?

Slightly superior

69

The position of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity is stabilized by?

The overlying peritoneum, Contact with adjacent visceral organs, and Supporting connective tissues

70

Typical renal blood flow is about ______ percent of cardiac output under resting conditions?

25

71

The renal sinus is?

An internal cavity lined by fibrous capsule

72

The outermost layer of the kidney is the?

Fibrous capsule

73

The cavity of the kidney that receives urine from the calyces is called the?

Renal pelvis

74

Triangular or conical structures located in the renal medulla are called?

Pyramids

75

Renal columns are?

Bundles of tissue that extend between pyramids from the cortex

76

The expanded beginning of the ureter connects to the?

Renal pelvis

77

Major calyces are?

Large tributaries of the renal pelvis

78

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term renal papilla?

Tip of the medullary pyramid

79

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term calyx?

Final urine enters here

80

The majority of glomeruli are located in the ______ of the kidney?

Cortex

81

Which of these components of the nephron is largely confined to the renal medulla?

Collecting ducts

82

Glomerular (Bowman's) capsule and the glomerulus make up the?

Renal corpuscle

83

A glomerulus is?

A knot of capillaries within the renal corpuscle

84

The filtrate first passes from the glomerular capsule to the?

Proximal convoluted tubule

85

The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the?

Distal convoluted tubule

86

The U-shaped segment of the nephron is the?

Nephron loop ( Loop of Henle)

87

The primary function of the proximal convoluted tubule is?

Reabsorbing nutrients

88

The glomeruli are best described as being tufts of?

Capillaries

89

The ______ delivers urine to minor calyx?

Papillary duct

90

The efferent arteriole of a nephron divides to form a network of capillaries within the cortex called the _____ capillaries?

Peritubular

91

Blood leaves the glomerulus through a blood vessel called the?

Efferent arteriole

92

The following is a list of the blood vessels that carry blood to the kidney.
1. afferent arteriole
2. arcuate artery
3. interlobar artery
4. renal artery
5. glomerulus
6. cortical radiate artery
7. efferent arteriole
8. peritubular capillary

The proper order in which blood passes through these vessels is?

4, 3, 2, 6, 1, 5, 7, 8.

93

Each of the following is a normal constituent of urine, except?

Proteins

94

Substances secreted by the distal convoluted tubule include?

Hydrogen, Penicillin, Creatinine, and Potassium ions

95

The process of filtration occurs at?

The glomerular (Bowman's) capsule

96

Approximately ________liters of glomerular filtrate enters glomerular capsules each day?

180

97

The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle consists of three layers?

Endothelium of glomerulus, dense layer of glomerulus, and podocyte filtration slits.

98

The structure known as the juxtaglomerular apparatus is located near the?

Glomerulus

99

Substances larger than ______ do NOT pass through the filtration membrane?

Albumin

100

The process of filtration is driven by?

Blood hydrostatic pressure

101

Under normal conditions, glomerular filtration depends on three main pressures. Which of those pressures is a pressure that favors the filtration pressure?

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure

102

Autoregulation of the rate of glomerular filtration has which of the following properties?

Depends on changes in the afferent arteriole, Depends on changes in the mesangial cells, and Depends on changes in the efferent arteriole

103

One mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic blood pressure is to?

Increase secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex

104

Increased sympathetic tone can do all of the following, except?

Increase the glomerular filtration rate

105

As the filtrate passes through the renal tubules, approximately what percentage is reabsorbed and returned to the circulation?

99%

106

Tubular reabsorption involves all of the following, except?

Stem cell movements

107

What percentage of nutrients (glucose, amino acids, ect.) are reabsorbed in the PCT?

25%

108

Secretion of hydrogen ion by the DCT is by process of?

Countertransport

109

In response to increased levels of aldosterone, the kidneys produce?

Urine with a lower concentration of sodium ions

110

Chloride ion is reabsorbed in the thick ascending limb by?

Cotransport with Na ions

111

Which of the following descriptions best matches the term nephron loop (loop of Henle)?

Relies on countercurrent multiplication, Creates high interstitial; NaCl concentration in the renal medulla, and Enables production of hypertonic urine

112

When the level of ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) decreases?

More urine is produced and the osmolarity of the urine decrease

113

The ability to form concentrated urine depends on the function of?

Both the collecting duct and the nephron loop (Loop of Henle)

114

Antidiuretic hormone?

Increases the permeability of the collecting ducts to water

115

The mechanism for producing concentrated urine involves?

The secretion of ADH, Aquaporins being inserted into the membranes of the collecting duct cells, A high concentration of NaCl in the interstitial fluid that surrounds the collecting ducts, and A properly functioning nephron loop

116

A patient excretes a large volume of very dilute urine on a continuing basis. This is maybe due to?

Absence of ADH

117

_______ is an immediately life-threatening condition, however, if an individual services the incident, full recovery is often possible?

Acute renal failure

118

An inability of the kidneys to excrete adequately to maintain homeostasis is?

Renal failure

119

Which of the following is characterized as a slowly progressing disease that is irreversible?

Chronic renal failure

120

Urine passes, in the order given, through which of the following structures?

Collecting duct, Renal pelvis, Ureter, Bladder, and Urethra

121

The ureter and urinary bladder are lined by _____ epithelium?

Transitional

122

The detrusor muscle?

Compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra

123

During the micturition reflex?

Stimulation of stretch receptions in the bladder wall sends impulses to the sacral cord

124

The condition called _______, is characterized by painful or difficult urination. This condition can be due to pathologic or benign causes?

Dysuria

125

Intracellular fluid (ICE) is found only within?

The cells of the body

126

The extracellular fluid (ECE) consists of the?

Plasma and lymph, Interstitial fluid, and Cerebrospinal fluid

127

In an adult male, the body consists of about ______ percent water?

60%

128

About two-thirds of the body fluids is within cells and is termed _____ fluid?

Intracellular

129

When pure water is consumed?

Osmolarities of the two fluids compartment fall

130

In an adult female, the body consists of about _____ percent water?

50%

131

When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained?

Osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF

132

A patient who has been both vomiting and having diarrhea is losing ______ from his body?

Water, Sodium ions, Hydrogen ions, and Bicarbonate ions

133

Consuming a meal high is salt will?

Result in a temporary increase in blood volume

134

To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties should this substance NOT have in order to be effective?

Permeable to brain plasma membranes

135

The principal cations in cytoplasm is?

Potassium

136

Which of the following is required as a cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis?

Copper

137

The ions in highest concentration in the extracellular fluid are?

Sodium and Chloride

138

Antidiuretic hormone?

Is secreted by the pituitary, Stimulates water intake, Stimulates water conservation by the kidneys

139

Aldosterone?

Is secreted in response to decreased blood volume, Promotes sodium retention in the kidneys, and Helps increase blood volume and raise blood pressure

140

Which of the following will stimulate thirst?

Drying the mucosa of the mouth and pharynx, Angiotensin II acting on the hypothalamus, an increase in the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid within the hypothalamus

141

Which hormone stimulates the thirst mechanism?

ADH

142

Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption?

Aldosterone

143

Which hormone is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?

Natriuretic peptides

144

Which hormone most affects the osmolarity of blood?

ADH

145

The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of?

Sodium ions

146

Angiotensin II produces a coordinated elevation in the ECF volume by?

Stimulating thirst, Causing deceased urinary water loss, and Causing increase Na+ retention

147

The release of natriuretic peptides from the heart will cause the body to?

Both decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions

148

The amount of potassium excreted by the kidneys is regulated mainly by?

Aldosterone

149

Secretion of potassium into the urine is?

Increased by aldosterone, Associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts, and Reduced when the exchange pump binds H+

150

A chemical that minimizes changes in the pH of a body fluid by releasing or binding hydrogen ion is called?

Buffer

151

The primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to?

Limit pH changes caused by organic and fixed acids

152

Excess hydrogen ion is eliminated from the body largely by?

The kidneys

153

When the pH of the extracellular fluid drops, the?

Kidneys excrete more hydrogen ions and kidneys excrete fewer bicarbonate ions

154

Prolonged vomiting can result in?

Metabolic alkalosis

155

A person with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus will develop?

Metabolic acidosis

156

A person who consumes large amount of sodium bicarbonate (Baking Soda) to settle an upset stomach risks?

Metabolic alkalosis

157

Severe kidney damage (such as, glomerulonephritis) often leads to?

Metabolic acidosis

158

Which of the following description best fits the acid-base disorder metabolic alkalosis?

Consequence of prolonged vomiting

159

Hypoventilation leads to?

Respiratory acidosis

160

In response to respiratory alkalosis, the?

Kidneys retain more hydrogen ions

161

A person with emphysema will exhibit signs of?

Chronic respiratory acidosis

162

A patient on a ventilator subjected to excessive minute volume is at risk for?

Respiratory alkalosis

163

Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory acidosis?

Consequence of reduced alveolar ventilation, for example due to emphysema

164

Which of the following descriptions best fits the acid-base disorder respiratory alkalosis?

Consequence of hyperventilation, for example in fever or mental illness