Digestion & Absorption: Digestive Enzymes

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1

Found in saliva. Splits starches (long-chain polysaccharides) into smaller fragments; the disaccharide maltose; the trisaccharide maltotriose; and short-chain glucose polymers called alpha-dextrins

Salivary Amylase

2

Found in pancreatic juice. It has the same function has salivary amylase.

Pancreatic Amylase

3

Brush border enzymes (embedded in the plasma membranes of microvilli). Acts on alpha-dextrins, clipping off one glucose.

Alpha-Dextrinase

4

Brush border enzyme (embedded in the plasma membranes of microvilli). Splits maltose or maltotriose into two or three molecules of glucose.

Maltase

5

Brush border enzyme (embedded in the plasma membranes of microvilli). Splits sucrose into a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose.

Sucrase

6

Brush border enzyme (embedded in the plasma membranes of microvilli). Splits lactose into a molecule of glucose and a molecule of galactose.

Lactase

7

Found in gastric juice. Secreted in the inactive form called pepsinogen by chief cells (zymogenic cells) and converted into pepsin by hydrochloric acid. Splits proteins into shorter fragments called peptides (50 or less amino acids)

Pepsin

8

Found in pancreatic juice. Secreted in the inactive form called trypsinogen by acinar cells and converted into pepsin by enterokinase (an enzyme embedded in the plasma membranes of intestinal epithelial cells). Splits protein into peptides.

Trypsin

9

Found in pancreatic juice. Secreted in the inactive form called chymotrypsinogen by acinar cells and converted into chymotrypsin by trypsin. Splits proteins into peptides.

Chymotrypsin.

10

Found in pancreatic juice. Secreted in the inactive form called procarboxypeptidase by acinar cells and converted into carboxypeptidase by trypsin. Splits off the terminal amino acid at the carboxyl end of a peptide. producing peptides and amino acids.

Carboxypeptidase

11

Brush border enzyme (embedded in the plasma membranes of microvilli). Splits off the terminal amino acid at the amino acid end of a peptide, producing peptides and amino acids.

Aminopeptidase

12

Brush border enzyme (embedded in the plasma membranes of microvilli). Splits dipeptides (two amino acids joined by a peptide bond), producing amino acids.

Dipeptidase

13

Found in saliva. Digest triglycerides in the stomach, converting as much as 30% of dietary triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides.

Lingual lipase

14

Found in pancreatic juice. Digests triglycerides that have been emulsified in the small intestine, producing fatty acids and monoglycerides.

Pancreatic Lipase

15

Found in the stomach. Initiates the digestion of mile fats.

Gastric Lipase