In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is the _____.
What clue would tell you if a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?
Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its
A. ribosome ... manufacture of lipids
B. mitochondrion ... photosynthesis
C. lysosome ... movement
D. nucleus ... cellular respiration
E. central vacuole ... storage
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT
A. a plasma membrane
C. an endoplasmic reticulum
D. a cell wall
Beginning within the nucleus, the first step leading to the synthesis of a polypeptide is _____.
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which molecules?
A cell with an extensive area of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to _____.
Which organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion?
The Golgi apparatus has a polarity, or sidedness, to its structure
and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes
A. Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.
B. Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
C. Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
D. All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein
that will be secreted by a cell?
A. ER → Golgi → nucleus
B. ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
C. Golgi → ER → lysosome
D. ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and, therefore, abundant in liver cells?
Mitochondria are found in _____.
Which of the following are common traits of chloroplasts and
A. Both are found in plant and animal cells.
B. Both are surrounded by a single membrane.
C. Both have their own DNA.
D. Both reproduce by meiosis.
E. Proteins for both are synthesized on ribosomes in the rough ER
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved _____.
A. acquisition of an endomembrane system and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi
B. endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
C. anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts
D. an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolving into the nucleus
Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.
Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules,
consisting of nine doublets of microtubules surrounding a pair of
A. motile cilia and primary (nonmotile) cilia
B. centrioles and basal bodies
C. basal bodies and primary (nonmotile) cilia
D. flagella and motile cilia
Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which involves _____.
Researchers tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?
Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to _____.
What are the definitions for each of these prefix, suffixes and root
a- (or an-)
cyte (or cyto-)