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Exam 1: Ch. 6: The Cell (Mastering Biology)

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created 2 years ago by Kiel_Peterson
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updated 2 years ago by Kiel_Peterson

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1

In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is the _____.

size and weight of the component

2

What clue would tell you if a cell is prokaryotic or eukaryotic?

whether or not the cell is partitioned by internal membranes

3

Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its function?

A. ribosome ... manufacture of lipids
B. mitochondrion ... photosynthesis
C. lysosome ... movement
D. nucleus ... cellular respiration
E. central vacuole ... storage

E. central vacuole ... storage

But remember, plant cells have a central vacuole, whereas most animal cells have several smaller vacuoles located throughout the cytoplasm.

4

All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT _____.

A. a plasma membrane
B. ribosomes
C. an endoplasmic reticulum
D. a cell wall

C. an endoplasmic reticulum

5

Beginning within the nucleus, the first step leading to the synthesis of a polypeptide is _____.

transferring of information from DNA to messenger RNA

Transcription is the first of the two main steps of protein synthesis.

6

Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which molecules?

proteins

7

A cell with an extensive area of smooth endoplasmic reticulum is specialized to _____.

synthesize large quantities of lipids

8

Which organelle plays a role in intracellular digestion?

lysosome

The prefix "lyso-" means decomposition.

9

The Golgi apparatus has a polarity, or sidedness, to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?

A. Transport vesicles fuse with one side of the Golgi and leave from the opposite side.
B. Lipids in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
C. Proteins in the membrane of the Golgi may be sorted and modified as they move from one side of the Golgi to the other.
D. All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.

D. All of the listed responses correctly describe polarity characteristics of the Golgi function.

10

Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?

rough ER

11

What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?

A. ER → Golgi → nucleus
B. ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane
C. Golgi → ER → lysosome
D. ER → lysosomes → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

B. ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane

12

The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and, therefore, abundant in liver cells?

smooth ER

13

Mitochondria are found in _____.

plant and animal cells

All eukaryotic cells, including plant and animal cells, contain mitochondria.

14

Which of the following are common traits of chloroplasts and mitochondria?

A. Both are found in plant and animal cells.
B. Both are surrounded by a single membrane.
C. Both have their own DNA.
D. Both reproduce by meiosis.
E. Proteins for both are synthesized on ribosomes in the rough ER

C. Both have their own DNA.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own DNA and ribosomes.

15

The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved _____.

A. acquisition of an endomembrane system and subsequent evolution of mitochondria from a portion of the Golgi
B. endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria
C. anaerobic archaea taking up residence inside a larger bacterial host cell to escape toxic oxygen the anaerobic bacterium evolved into chloroplasts
D. an endosymbiotic fungal cell evolving into the nucleus

B. endosymbiosis of an aerobic bacterium in a larger host cell the endosymbiont evolved into mitochondria

16

Where are proteins produced other than on ribosomes free in the cytosol or ribosomes attached to the ER?

in mitochondria

17

Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?

components of the cytoskeleton

18

The cilia and flagella of eukaryotic cells are composed of _____.

microtubules

Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are composed of microtubules.

19

Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, consisting of nine doublets of microtubules surrounding a pair of single microtubules?

A. motile cilia and primary (nonmotile) cilia
B. centrioles and basal bodies
C. basal bodies and primary (nonmotile) cilia
D. flagella and motile cilia

D. flagella and motile cilia

20

Amoebae move by crawling over a surface (cell crawling), which involves _____.

growth of actin filaments to form bulges in the plasma membrane

21

Researchers tried to explain how vesicular transport occurs in cells by attempting to assemble the transport components. They set up microtubular tracks along which vesicles could be transported, and they added vesicles and ATP (because they knew the transport process requires energy). Yet, when they put everything together, there was no movement or transport of vesicles. What were they missing?

motor proteins

22

Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to _____.

move vesicles within a cell

23

What are the definitions for each of these prefix, suffixes and root words?

ex-
a- (or an-)
cyte (or cyto-)
endo-
eu-
mito-
chloro-

out of: ex-
without, lack of, not: a- (or an-)
cell: -cyte (or cyto-)
inside, inner: endo-
true, good: eu-
thread: mito-
green: chloro-

24

Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?

A. centriole
B. central vacuole
C. chloroplast
D. mitochondrion

D. mitochondrion