Bio 210

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1

Metabolism

the building and breaking down of chemical structures within the body

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anabolism

  • is making more complex substances from simpler substances. In other words converting small molecules into larger molecules. Anabolism requires energy. Put glucose monomers to make polymers
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catabolism

is the opposite of anabolism. Catabolism is breaking down substances into simpler components or converting large molecules into smaller molecules. This often produces energy. Break down polymers to make monomers

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negative feedback

the output reverses the original stimulus. This means that when something happens to the body, it responds by doing something to change what has happened. An example of this is when you eat a meal, the glucose in your blood increases. When this happens, your pancreas produces insulin to bring your glucose level back down. The body will stop producing insulin when the glucose level is returned to the right level.

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positive feedback

is when the output increases the original stimulus. This means that there is an initial stimulus that takes place in the body causes a response. This stimulus causes the body to produce chemicals to keep the stimulus going. An example of this would be when a pregnant woman begins contractions. The first contraction of the uterus causes the fetus and placenta to produce oxytocin. As the amount of oxytocin increases, the contractions increase which causes the production of oxytocin. This cycle continues until the baby is born and oxytocin is no longer needed

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homeostasis

  • is the body’s ability to maintain the variables within a certain range.
  • An example of homeostatic regulation would be blood glucose levels staying within a certain range.
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mucous membrane

epithelial tissue lining the cavities that are open to the outside. The digestive system is lined with mucous membrane

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serous membrane

line the closed cavities of the body and the organs enclosed in these cavities. This would be the lining on the outside of the heart. The visceral serosa would be directly lining the heart. The pericardial cavity would be next and then the parietal serosa would enclose the pericardial cavity

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Visceral Pluera

the pleura covering the surface of the lungs

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Parietal Pluera

the pleura lining the inner chest wall and covering the diaphragm

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Plueral Cavity

  • the serous membrane surrounding the lungs and the inner walls of the chest
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Cation

an atom or molecule that has lost one or more electrons. This molecule would have a (+) when writing the molecule

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anion

an atom or molecule that has gained one or more electrons. This molecule would have a (-) when writing the molecule

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isotope

  • is an atom with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons.
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isomers

  • are molecules with the same chemical formula, but different shapes.
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Mole

the amount of a substance with a weight in grams equal to the atomic or molecular weight. One mole is 6.022x1023. If you have 1 mol of carbon it weighs 12.01 grams. Or vice versa, 12.01 grams of carbon is 1 mol of carbon

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Molarity

the number of moles of any one solute per liter

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Osmolarity

the total number of moles in a solute concentration per liter

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Monomer

  • a molecule that can be bound together with identical molecules to form a polymer.
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Polymers

a group of similar molecules that can be broken down to form monomers

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Polar Molecule

one side of the molecule would tend to be negative while the other side would tend to be positive. They would dissolve in water

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Nonpolar molecule

have the same charge on each side of the molecule. They would have equal sharing

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Enzyme

  • does not get destroyed or used up. The enzyme is not part of the chemical reaction, but is used to aid in speeding up the reaction.
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Chemical equilibrium

forward and reverse chemical reaction are happening at the same rate and the ratio of the products and reactants doesn’t change.

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Osmosis

the net diffusion of water when two solutions with different solute concentrations are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Osmosis occurs until water has crossed the membrane from low solute concentration to high solute concentration and is equal on both sides

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Primary Active Transport

uses metabolic energy to transport molecules across a membrane. An example is sodium potassium pump

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Secondary Active Transport

  • has an indirect energy requirement.

An example would be sodium coupled glucose transport

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Simple Diffusion

  • some nonpolar and lipid soluble substances can diffuse directly through the lipid layer. Molecules in simple diffusion move down the concentration gradient.
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Fascilitated Diffusion

molecules move only with the aid of an integral protein. The molecules move down the concentration gradient, but it does not require energy

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hypotonic solution

one having a lower solute concentration than the blood. A cell will gain water if placed in hypotonic solution

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Isotonic Solution

one with the same solute concentration as the blood. A cell will neither gain nor lose water in an isotonic solution

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Hypertonic Solution

one having a higher solute concentration than the blood. A cell will lose water if placed into a hypertonic solution

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Na+ K+ ATPase

sodium- potassium exchange pump. The potassium exchange pump is an enzyme embedded in the cell membrane. The function of the sodium-potassium pump is to exchange move three sodium out of the cell while bringing two potassium into the cell. It is a primary active transport by using energy

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Transcription

the process by which genetic information represented by a sequence of DNA nucleotides is copied into newly synthesized molecules of RNA, with the DNA serving as a template

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Translation

the process in which cellular ribosomes create proteins. In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA)—produced by transcription from DNA—is decoded by a ribosome to produce a specific amino acid chain, or polypeptide

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Cell Membrane

  • consists of phospholipids, integral membrane proteins, and cholesterol.