Chapter 2 Definitions

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definitions in Ch 2
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1

bioavailability

percentage of the drug dosage that is absorbed

2

drug absorption

entrance of a drug into the bloodstream from its site of administration

3

drug addiction

condition of drug abuse and drug dependence that is characterized by compulsive drug behavior

4

drug dependence

condition of reliance on the use of a particular drug, characterized as physical and/or psychological dependence

5

drug distribution

passage of a drug from the blood to the tissues and organs of the body

6

drug excretion

elimination of the drug from the body

7

drug metabolism

the enzymatic biotransformation of a drug into metabolites

8

drug microsomal metabolizng system (DMMS)

group of enzymes located primarily in the liver that function to metabolize (biotransformation) drugs

9

drug tolerance

decreased drug effect occuring after repeated drug administration

10

enzyme induction

inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes after repeated administration of certain drugs

11

enzyme inhibition

inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes by certain drugs

12

first-pass metabolism

drug metabolism that occurs in the intestines and liver during oral absorption of drugs into the systemic circulation

13

half-life

time required for the body to reduce the amount of drug in the plasma by one-half

14

individual variation

difference in the effect of drugs and drug dosages from one person to another

15

intramuscular injection (IM)

route of drug administration; drug is injected into gluteal or deltoid muscles

16

intraveous injection (IV)

route of drug administration where drugs are injected directly into a vein

17

loading dose

initial drug dose administered to rapidly achieve therapeutic drug concentrations

18

maintenance dose

dose administered to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations

19

oral administration

route of drug administration by way of the mouth through swallowing

20

parenteral administration

route of drug administration that does NOT involve the GI tract

21

pharmacokintics

describes the processes of drug absorption, drug distribution, drug metabolism, and drug excretion.