Final Review

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What causes addisons disease?

deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone


what causes acromegaly?

Too much GH after epiphyseal plates have closed (adults)


What causes Diabetes mellitus

Hyposecretion of insulin


What causes Pituitary dwarfism

GH deficiency in children


What causes Graves' disease

Abnormal antibodies towards thyroid produced. Increases TH release.


What causes Cushing's disease

tumor/excess growth of pituitary gland. increased ACTH production


What causes Myxedema

Full blown hyperthyroid syndrome


What causes cretinism?

severe hypothyroid in infants


The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are _____

PTH and calcitonin


The hormones that regulate blood sugar levels are______ and _____.

Insulin and glucagon


The _________ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin

Beta cells


The _________ are the pancreatic islet cells that produce glucagon

alpha cells


Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of ________.



The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the ________.



Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.



Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as ________.

down regulation


The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.



Thyroid hormone enters target cells in a manner similar to ________ .

steroid hormones


The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

skeletal muscle and bone


The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. This is accomplished through ________.

stimulating osteoclasts to release calcium into the blood


Leptin is secreted by ________.

adipose cells (fat cells)


What is the function of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males?

sperm production


Hormone that stimulates production of RBCs is _____.



1. The hormone regulating electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is____

2. Name hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis:

1. aldosterone



1. Name the steroid-based hormones

2. Name the categories of endocrine gland stimuli

1. Estrogen, testosterone, cortisone, aldosterone, etc.

2. hormonal, humoral, neural


Know structural and functional characteristics of WBCs

eosinophils: granulocyte, bilobed nucleus. attacks parasitic worms.
neutrophils: granulocyte, multilobed nucleus, phagocyte.
Basophils: bilobed u shape nucleus, darkly staining nucleus, releases histamine and heparin.
Monocyte: largest of all. a granulocyte, crucial in defense against pathogens


What are Eicosanoids, give examples

paracrines, leukotrienes, prostaglandins


Understand structural and functional characteristics of hypophysis

function: releases hormones that stimulate other glands to release hormones. hypophyseal tract, portal system feeds adenophyseal side.


1. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

2. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to posterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

1. hypophyseal portal system

2. tract


1. The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.

2. Normal development of the immune response is due to hormones produced by_____.

1. its a hormone storage area.

2. thymus


1. LH is also referred to as a _______.

2. The presence of an exophthalmic goiter is associated with ______.

1. gonadotropin

2. graves disease


1. ADH secretion will increase when blood pressure______.

2. The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is _______

1. decreases

2. gluconeogenesis


What characteristics are associated with hyposecretion of thyroid hormones?

myxedema, cretinism


Know the functions of the following hormones
a. calcitonin
b. TSH
d. prolactin
e. thymosin

a. reduced blood calcium
b. causes thyroid to stimulate TH
c. stimulates adrenals to release cortisol
d. induce milk expression
e. stimulates development of T cells


Describe the following blood disorders
a. Leukemia
b. Anemia
c. Polycythemia all types
d. Embolism
e. Erythrocytosis

a. cancerous condition of WBC's
b. decreased RBC count
c. increased amount of RBC's
d. obstruction of a blood vessel due to a clot
e. excess RBC's in response to stimulus.


1. Know the chemical components of the Hemoglobin molecule

2. Know the functions of blood

1. Iron, heme, globin, 2 alpha and beta chains.

2. transportation, regulation, protection


1. Name the organs regulating RBC production

1. liver, kidney.


1. The parent cell for all formed elements of blood is _____.

2. The ability of white blood cells to leave the circulation and enter tissues is called____.


2. diapedesis.


1. How would an increased in amount of heparin affect blood clothing?

2. What is the purpose of RhoGam injections?

1. it would stop the clot because heparin is an anticoagulant.

2. to protect a Rh+ fetus from Rh- mother


1. In what situations might Rh incompatibility develop?

2. Know all different types of capillaries

1. Rh - mom and Rh + fetus

2. continuous, fenestrated, sinusoidal.


1. Know all different types of arteries and give example of location which they serve

2. Know the conditions which can be expected with polycythemia

1. elastic, muscular, arterioles. elastic is found close to the heart, muscular is found throughout the body and arterioles serve capillary beds.

2. increased hematocrit, increased blood volume, increased BP


Explain why the erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude.

because your body needs more O2 so it produces more RBC's


1. Know the correct developmental sequence of an RBC

2. Natural anticoagulant found in basophils is______.

1. proerythroblast, late erb, normoblast, reticulocyte.

2. heparin.


1. The immediate response to blood vessel injury is ________.

2. Know the regulatory functions of blood

1. Vascular spasm



1. Know the protective functions of blood

2. Blood volume restorers include


2. dextran, albumin, saline


1. A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of ________anemia.

2. Leukocytes are different from RBCs in that they have ___________.

1. pernicious

2. nucleuses.


1. Which organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

2. The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ________.

1. kidneys

2. Hemoglobin F


1. Which blood type is called the universal donor?

2. Normal range of hemoglobin ________.

1. O-

2. 13-18


1. Name the normal plasma proteins

2. Thromboembolic disorders are characterize by ________.

1. albumins, fibrinogens, globulins

2. clot formation


1. Know the location of followings: Epicardium, Myocardium, Endocardium

2. Know the followings: Purkinje fibers, AV bundle, SA node, AV node

1. outer layer, middle layer, inner layer

2. PF: network in myocardium, SA NODE: pacemaker of heart, AVNODE: after SA node, delays impulses, AV bundle: septum


1. Know the function and location for the followings; Pulmonary valves, Aortic valve, Mitral valve, and Tricuspid valve

2. Normal heart sounds are caused by __________.

1. OK

2. Closing of valves


1. The semilunar valves are (open /close) when ventricles are in diastole.

2. Explain why the left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall?

1. closed.

2. because it has to pump harder


1. Damage to the ________ is referred to as heart block.

2. The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates ________.
3. The _____ carry blood to capillaries in the myocardium.
4. Length of the absolute refractory period in cardiac muscle cells is longer than the same skeletal muscle cells to ________.

1. AV node

2. atrial depolarisation

3. coronary arteries

4. prevent tetanic contractions


1. What happens to the heart rate if the vagal nerves to the heart were cut?

2. Which blood vessels receive blood during ventricular systole?

3. Isovolumetric contraction refers to the short period of time during which ventricles are ________.

4. Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is (higher/lower) than in the systemic circulation.

1. increases by 25 beats

2. pulmonary and aorta

3. completely closed chambers

4. lower.


1. The three main factors influencing blood pressure are

2. The chemicals which help regulate blood pressure are

3. Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?

4. Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ________.

1. cardiac output, peripheral resistance, blood volume.

2. ADH, ANP, Angiotensin II

3. tunica intima

4. capillaries


1. The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called ____.

2. The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.

3. This process provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure

4. Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?

1. hepatic portal circulation

2. muscular arteries

3. renal regulation

4. Tunica media


1. The arteries that directly feed into the capillary beds are called ________.

2. Modified capillaries of liver that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.

3. Factors that aid venous return include

4. A thrombus in the first branch of the arch of the aorta would affect the flow of blood to the ________.

1. terminal arterioles.

2. sinusoids

3. activity of skeletal muscles, pressure changes in thorax, venous valves.

4. right side of the head, neck and upper right arm


1. The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to________.

2. Know the definition of the followings: Thoracic duct, Spleen, Lymph, Lymph nodes and Peyer's patches

3. The function of type II pneumocytes is to ________.

1. changes in arterial pressure.

2. OK

3. secrete surfactant


1. The patency of the trachea is due to ________.

2. Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.

3. The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by _____law.

4. Dalton's law states____________.

1. Cartilaginous C rings

2. pressure within alveoli of lungs

3. boyles

4. total pressure is sum of partial pressures of individual gases.


1. Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.

2. Tidal volume is air ________.

3. The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ____.

4. Respiratory control centers are located in the ________ and _______.

1. decreasing surface tension by interfering with cohesiveness of H2O molecules

2. exchanged during normal respiration

3. vital capacity.

4. pons and medulla


110. The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
111. Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.
112. How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
113. Know the gross anatomy of both lungs

1. inspiratory reserve.

2. diffusion

3. as bicarbonate ions in plasma.

4. OK


1. Know role of the pleura

2. __________provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange.

3. The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.

4. Factors that promote oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin include:

1. OK.

2. alveoli.

3. alveolar and capillary walls and fused basement membrane.

4. Partial pressure of oxygen, partial pressure or CO2 and temperature


1. Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ______.

2. Know the composition of sodium, potassium, phosphate, bicarbonates, and protein for the following: interstitial fluid, blood plasma and intracellular fluid

1. ciliated mucus lining the nose.

2. bicarbonate is highest in interstitial, and sodium, phosphorus and proteins are highest in intracellular.



1. The body’s water volume is closely tied to the level of _______ ions

2. The main physiological cause of Respiratory acidosis is ____________.

3. Name the three chemical buffer systems.

1. sodium.

2. dunno yet

3. bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein systems


124. Know the pathogenic agent for the followings: Chlamydia, Genital warts, Syphilis, Genital herpes, Gonorrhea

1. OK. make a list


125. Know the definition of the followings:
a. Capacitation
b. Fertilization
c. Implantation
d. Gastrulation
e. Cleavage

a.To cause (spermatozoa) to undergo the physical changes needed to penetrate and fertilize an egg.

b. The union of male and female gametes to form a zygote.

c. The process by which a fertilized egg implants in the uterine lining.

d. the process in which a gastrula is formed from a blastula by the inward migration of cells

e. The series of mitotic cell divisions that produces a blastula from a fertilized ovum. It is the basis of the multicellularity of complex organisms. Also called segmentation


1. The embryonic stage lasts until the end of the ________week.

2. The embryo is directly enclosed in and protected by the __________.

3. In fetal circulation, one way in which blood bypasses the lungs is by way of the ___________.

4. It is impossible for sperm to be functional (able to fertilize the egg) until they undergo ________.

1. 8th

2. amnion

3. foramen ovale

4. capacitation


1. During the first trimester ________ produces Estrogen and Progesterone.

2. The two enzymes that act to break down the protective barriers around the egg, allowing the sperm to penetrate are ___________ and ________.

3. Name the embryonic germ layers.

4. The hormone which maintains the viability of the corpus luteum is _______.

1. ovary (corpus luteum).

2. proteases and acrosin.

3. ectoderm, medoderm, endoderm.

4. human chorionic gonadotropin.


134. The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.
135. The walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.
136. Name the factors that help create the stomach mucosal barrier

1. mesentery.

2. mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa.

3. thick bicarbonate, tight junction of epithelium, and replacing damaged cells.


1. The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

2. This hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile.

3. Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

4. Pepsinogen is secreted by the ________.

1. lamina propria

2. cholecystokinin

3. parietal cells

4. chief cells


1. Name the components of the renal corpuscle

2. The ____ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

3. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible for ________.

4. The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.

1. glomerulus and bowmans capsule.

2. arcuate

3. regulates the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic BP

4. glomerular hydrostatic pressure.


1. Name the components of The filtration membrane includes

2. The macula densa cells respond to ________.

3. The fluid in the Bowman's capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not contain a significant amount of ________.

4. Why does Alcohol acts as a diuretic?

1. glomerular endothelium, podocytes, fused basement membrane

2. changes in solute content of filtrate.

3. plasma protein.

4. inhibits ADH


1. Name The functions of angiotensin II.
2. A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is _____
3. Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination from the body.
a. major calyx
b. minor calyx
c. nephron
d. urethra
e. ureter
f. collecting duct

1. constrict arterioles and increase BP

2. diabetes insipidus


1. The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is the ________.

2. If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?

1. glomerular hydrostatic pressure.

2. normally all glucose is reabsorbed.

3. a. increased potassium
b. increased magnesium
c. increased sodium
d. decreased calcium
e. decreased sodium


1. Aldosterone regulated ______ and ______ in an antagonistic fashion.

2. The two organs that function as the most important physiological buffer systems are _____, _____

3. The three methods for regulating the hydrogen ion concentration in blood are

1. sodium and potassium

2. lungs, kidneys

3. chemical buffer systems, respiratory changes, renal mechanism


1. Know the definition of the following
a. Hyperkalemia
b. Hypermagnesemia
c. Hypernatremia
d. Hypocalcemia
e. Hyponatremia

1. c, f, b, a, e, d. (nephron, collecting duct, minor calyx, major calyx, ureter, urethra.