Final Lab Practical

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What is the function that surrounds the kidneys in life?

in a living person, fat deposits hold the kidneys in place against the muscles of posterior trunk wall.


1. maintains water and electrolyte balance of blood

2. serves as a storage area for urine

1. kidney

2. bladder


1. transports urine to body exterior

2. transports arterial blood to kidney

1. urethra

2. renal artery


1. produces urine

2. transports urine to urinary bladder

1. kidney

2. ureter


1. shorter in females than males

2. smooth membrane clinging tightly to kidney surface.

1. urethra

2. renal capsule


1. portion of kidney containing mostly collecting ducts

2. portion of kidney containing bulk of the nephron structures

1. medulla

2. cortex


1. basinlike area of kidney, continuous with the ureter

2. an extension of the pelvis that encircles the apex of a pyramid

1. renal pelvis

2. calyx


1. area of cortex like tissue running between medullary pyramids of filtrate formation

1. renal column

2. glomerulus


1. primary site of tubular reabsorption

2. structure that conveys the processed filtrate (urine) to the renal pelvis

3. blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells

1. proximal convoluted tubule

2. collecting duct

3. peritubular capillaries


1. its inner (visceral) membrane forms part of the filtration membrane

2. why is the glomerulus such a high pressure capillary bed?

1. glomerulus.

2. because its fed and drained by arterioles and the feeder afferent arteriole is larger than efferent arteriole draining the bed


1. how does its high pressure condition aid its function of filtrate formation?

1. the high hydrostatic pressure forces out fluid and blood components smaller than proteins from the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule.


1. Trace a drop of blood from when it enters the kidney in renal artery to when it leaves through the renal vein

1. renal artery - segmental artery- lobar artery- interlobar artery- arcuate artery- interlobular artery- afferent arterioles- glomerulus- peritubular capillary- interlobular vein- arcuate vein- interlobar vein- renal vein


Trace the anatomical pathway of a molecule of creatinine (metabolic waste) from the glomerular capsule to the urethra.

1. glomerular capsule- proximal convoluted tubule- loop of henle- distal convoluted tubule- collecting duct- renal cortex- medullary pyramid- calyces- renal pelvis- ureter- urinary bladder- urethra


1. what is the normal volume of urine excreted in a 24 hour period?

2. lits three nitrogenous wastes that are routinely found in urine

3. list thre substances that are absent from the filtrate AND urine of healthy people

1. 1.0 - 1.8 Litres

2. urea, creatinine, uric acid.

3. blood, protein, bile.


1. list two substances that are routinely found in filtrate but not in urine.

2. what substance is responsible for the normal yellow color of urine?

3. which has a greater specific gravity, 1 ml of urine or 1 ml of distilled water?

1. glucose, amino acids

2. urochrome (breakdown of hemoglobin)

3. 1 ml of urine


1. blood in urine

2. hemolytic anemia

3. eating a 5 LB box of candy at one sitting

1. hematuria

2. hemoglobinuria

3. glycosuria


1. pregnancy

2. starvation

3. UTI

1. albuminuria

2. ketonuria

3. pyouria


1. list two principal functions of the testes:

2. copulatory organ/penetrating device

3. produces sperm

1. sperm and testosterone production

2. penis

3. testis


1. duct conveying sperm to the ejaculatory duct; in the spermatic cord.

2. a urine and semen conduit

3. sperm maturation site

1. vas deferens

2. penile urethra

3. epididymis


1. location of testis in adult males

2. hoods the glans penis

3. portion of the urethra between the prostate gland and the penis

1. scrotum

2. prepuce

3. membranous urethra


1. empties a secretion into the prostatic urethra

2. empties a secretion into the membranous urethra

3. why are testes located in the scrotum?

1. prostate gland

2. bulbourethral gland

3. the temp there is slightly lower than body temperature, a requirement for producing viable sperms.


1. describe the composition of semen and name all structures contributing to its formation

1. semen is composed of sperm and seminal fluid. the sperm are produced int he testis and the seminal fluid is produced by the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral gland.


1. of what importance is the fact that seminal fluid is alkaline?

1. helps neutralise the acid environment of the female vagina, protecting the sperm, and enhancing their motility.


1. trace pathway of sperm from testes to urethra.

1. seminiferous tubule - rete testis- epididymis- ductus deferens


1. site of fetal development.

2. copulatory canal

3. "fertilised egg" typically formed here

1. uterus

2. vagina

3. fallopian tube


1. becomes erectile during sexual excitement

2. duct extending superolaterally from uterus

3. produces eggs, estrogens, and progesterone

4. fingerlike ends of the uterine tube

1. clitoris

2. fallopian tubes

3. ovaries

4. fimbriae


1. do any sperm enter the pelvic cavity of female?

2. name the structures composing the external genitals of female

1. possible because there is no actual contat between the female gonad and uterine tube

2. the external genitals consist of the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, urethral and vaginal orifices, and greater vestibular glands.


1. Name the male stucture that is homologous to the femal stuctures below"
a. labia majora
b. clitoris

2. what is ovulation?

a. scrotum
b. penis

2. the ejection of a mature egg from the ovary.


1. the testis is divided into a number of lobes by connective tissue. each of these lobes contains one to fou ______ _____ ____ ____, which converge on a tubular region of the testis called the ______________________.

2. what is the function of the spongy erectile bodies seen in the male penis?

1. highly coiled seminiferous tubules; rete testis at the mediastinum of the testis.

2. the spongy erectile bodies fill with blood during sexual excitement, causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid.


1. What is a follicle?

2. what develops in follicles?

1. sac like structures within which the femal gametes begin their development.

2. gametes.