Human Anatomy & Physiology 12,13,14,15,16

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1

each hemisphere is chiefly concerned with functions on the opposite side of the body.

Contralateral

2

some functions only occur in one hemisphere.
Right usually intuitive and creative (art & music).
Left usually logical and analytical (math & science).

Lateralization

3

Three types of functional areas:

Motor, Sensory, Association

4

Houses conscious mind (e.g., reasoning, emotion, memory, sensory input, language, voluntary movements).

Cerebral Cortex

5

Primary motor cortex is located in the

precentral gyrus

6

Voluntary control of skeletal muscle contraction

Primary motor cortex

7

Controls repetitious or patterned motor skills

Premotor cortex

8

Voluntary eye movement is in the

Frontal eye field

9

Directs muscles of speech production.
Involved in planning speech.
Usually only on left side.

Broca’s area

10

Broca’s area is located?

only on left side.

11

What are the four main motor areas of cortex?

Primary motor cortex, Premotor cortex, Frontal eye field and Broca’s area

12

mapping of body in CNS structures

Somatotopy

13

General Pathway of Sensory Input are?

Sensory receptors,Primary sensory cortex,Sensory association cortex, Multinodal association cortex

14

Detect stimulus and send message to brain.

Sensory receptors

15

Primary sensory cortex Interprets

basic aspects of sensory input.

16

Sensory association cortex

Uses prior knowledge to put sensory input into correct context.

17

Integrates many inputs to make decisions.

Multinodal association cortex

18

Somatic sensation: Primary somatosensory cortex

General senses (pain, touch, temperature).
Spatial discrimination.

19

part of cortex that stored a memory
“Feels like sandpaper

Somatosensory association cortex

20

sensations on left side of body go to right hemisphere.

Contralateral

21

Primary visual cortex

Somatotopic map of retina.

22

Visual association cortex

Associates images with previous knowledge base.
Damage causes inability to comprehend images

23

Primary visual cortex

Identifies color, edges (shape), and movement.
Damage causes functional blindness.

24

Primary visual cortex is located in

occipital lobe area

25

Auditory areas are Primary auditory cortex are located?

inferior end of the post central gyrus in the temporal region

26

Interprets pitch, loudness, location.

Primary auditory cortex

27

if damage happens to the primary cortex you are

functionally blind

28

Auditory association cortex are

Sound linked to known types.

29

Gustatory cortex is

Sensation of taste

30

Gustatory cortex is located

deep on the insula

31

Part of lg part of rhinencephalon.

Olfactory cortex

32

What does the rhinencephalon do?

processes emotion

33

Olfaction has a strong connection with emotion

...

34

Visceral sensory area is on

the insula

35

Visceral sensory means

sensory information coming from viscera internal organs, bladder heart lungs

36

Vestibular (equilibrium) cortex

close to auditory cortex in the insula sends information (equilibrium)

37

Multinodal Association Areas (MAAs)

to have more complex connections with multiple inputs and multiple outputs.

38

There are three MAAs:

Anterior,Posterior,Limbic

39

Store information in memory.
Give meaning to information and choose responses.
Relay decisions to premotor cortex

General functions:Multinodal Association Areas (MAAs)

40

Multinodal Association Areas

Relay decisions to premotor cortex

41

Anterior association area is in the

Prefrontal cortex: anterior area of the frontal lobe

42

Involved with:Intellect.Complex learning. Recall (memory),personality

Anterior association

43

lobotomy was preformed in this area

Prefrontal cortex

44

Involved with: Recognizing patterns.
Placing self in space or surroundings.
Integrating many different inputs

Posterior association area

45

is important in understanding written and spoken language.

Wernicke’s area

46

Working memory is used for abstract ideas, judgment, reasoning, and planning.

Anterior association area(Prefrontal cortex)

47

Prefrontal cortex is the last area of the brain to?

fully develop

48

teenagers have problems associated with this area the _______ because it is the last area of the brain to fully develop.

function Prefrontal cortex

49

Posterior association area is

Recognizing patterns mostly temporal lobe

50

Wernicke’s area is located

Posterior association area on the left hemisphere

51

Limbic Association Area are located around the?

Cingulate gyrus,Parahippocampal gyrus,Hippocampus
(deep)

52

The three areas Multinodal Association Areas are

Anterior association area,Posterior association area, and the Limbic Association Area

53

Limbic Association Area provides

emotional impact that makes something important.
experiences and events

54

Limbic Association can

fast track events into long-term memory

55

awareness of sensation, voluntary control of movement, and higher mental processing (memory, logic, judgment, etc.).

Consciousness

56

brief loss of consciousness.
Usually due to loss of blood flow or low blood pressure.

Fainting (syncope)

57

prolonged state of unconsciousness from a which a person cannot be aroused.

Coma

58

state of partial unconsciousness from which a person can be aroused

Sleep

59

where was Corey during the September 11 attacks?

sitting on a hill in Costa Rica counting birds

60

storage and retrieval of information.

Memory

61

Two stages: of memory

Short-term (working) memory, Long-term memory

62

(fact) memory
Entails learning information (words, dates, etc.).
Usually remembered in context.
Example: memorizing friends’ phone numbers.

Declarative

63

(skills) memory
Acquired through experience, often with repetition.
Hard to unlearn.
Examples: playing the piano, riding a bicycle

Procedural

64

Cerebral White Matter

Myelinated axons bundled into tracts

65

Hypnograms are?

RECORDING OF SLEEP ACTIVITY

66

Cerebral White Matter: connect corresponding parts of the two hemispheres.

Commissure

67

Cerebral White Matter: connect different parts of the same hemisphere.

Association

68

Cerebral White Matter: connect cerebrum to other brain structures or spinal cord.

Projection

69

Efferent are?

(motor)

70

REM means

rapid eye movement

71

REM occurs because you?

involuntary contractions of eye muscles rapid movement of eye

72

Dreaming happens in the REM state

REM state

73

Islands of gray matter deep within white matter that receive input from entire cerebral cortex

Basal Nuclei

74

Basal Nuclei is Responsible for

directing body movements starting, stopping, and planning the intensity of body movements.

75

Parkinson disease,Huntington disease Disorders that affect the?

basal nuclei show symptoms that distort these functions. function with body movements

76

Substantia nigra (in midbrain} makes most of

the dopamine in the brain

77

Corpus callosum is the largest

Commissure

78

two main projections in the cerebral tracks are

Internal capsule and Corona radiata

79

how many basil nucleus are in each hemisphere?

0ne

80

Functionally associated with: Subthalamic nuclei

in diencephalon)

81

what is the functional name for the post central gyrus?

primary

82

Diencephalon: Largely gray matter that surrounds the third ventricle, in three parts what are they?

Thalamus, Hypothalamus,Epithalamus

83

Comprises 80% of diencephalon.

Thalamus

84

Thalamus is a

Primary relay station for signals to cerebral cortex.
Sorts and edits incoming information.

85

Main visceral control center of body

Hypothalamus

86

Diencephalon make up what precent of brain mass?

three or four

87

Cerebrum makes up what percent of brain mass?

eighty

88

what are the four primary brain structures

Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Limbic System, Brain Stem

89

The cerebrum or cortex is the

largest part of the human brain,

90

associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.

cerebrum or cortex

91

associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving

Frontal Lobe

92

associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli

Parietal Lobe

93

associated with visual processing

Occipital Lobe

94

associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

Temporal Lobe

95

often referred to as the "emotional brain

The limbic system,

96

The limbic system,contains the

thalamus, hypothalamus, amygdala, and hippocampus

97

This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure

the brain stem.

98

The brain stem is made of the

midbrain, pons, and medulla.

99

Diencephalon is made up of

gray matter

100

Thalamus is the

Primary relay station

101

Hypothalamus Functions its a

control center of the ANS autonomic nervous system

102

ANS control center.Center for emotional response.
Body temperature regulation.Regulation of food intake.
Regulation of water balance and thirst.Regulation of sleep-wake cycle. Control of endocrine system functions.with the association of the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus Functions

103

Hypothalamus controls the

pituitary gland

104

the connection between the endocrin and nervous system is the

Hypothalamus & pituitary gland

105

most of the ANS functions originate with the

Hypothalamus

106

White matter tracts with gray matter nuclei that produce rigidly programmed, automatic behaviors necessary for survival

Brainstem

107

Visual and auditory reflexes

Midbrain

108

Connects motor cortex to cerebellum

Pons

109

Cardiac center, Vasomotor center,Respiratory center
Non-vital reflexes cough, sneeze, vomit, swallow

Medulla oblongata

110

Some of these functions are coordinated by the hypothalamus and carried out by the medulla

Cardiac center, Vasomotor center,Respiratory center
Non-vital reflexes cough, sneeze, vomit, swallow

111

...

Ten of the twelve

112

Receives inputs from multiple sources to provide precise timing and patterns for coordinated body movements

Cerebellum

113

Cerebellar peduncles connections to brainstem are?

Inferior Middle Superior

114

sensory info on body position.

Inferior peduncles

115

cortical info on desired movements.

Middle peduncles

116

sends movement signals to cerebral motor cortex.

Superior peduncles

117

on the Posterior side are where you have auditory and visual reflexs

Inferior colliculi & Superior colliculi

118

Networks that span large areas rather than being localized in a small region.

Functional Brain Systems

119

Limbic system Parts of cerebrum and diencephalon Forms the?

emotional brain.

120

Cerebellum is responsible for

positioning the body and direction

121

peduncles do what?

connects cerebellum to other structures

122

Reticular formation Formed by

core of brainstem.

123

What on the Cerebellum is not contralateral.

Somatotopic map controls same side

124

Filters nearly 99% of sensory information.never makes it to consciousness
Maintains alert wakefulness of cerebral cortex.

reticular activating system

125

main part of the Reticular formation is

reticular activating system (RAS)

126

Damage in the _____ can lead to coma

Reticular formation

127

Sensory Processing Disorder can

Sensory avoiders – RAS does not filter enough.seek quietness
Sensory seekers – RAS filters too much. hit head

128

Helps express emotion & Helps resolve mental conflicts when frustrated

Cingulate gyrus

129

damage to the Amygdala

wont show proper fear response

130

is cause by a lack of function in the Cingulate gyrus difficulty expressing emotion & resolving frustration

Autism

131

stores Memory of emotional responses.
Assesses danger Elicits fear response

Amygdala

132

RAS filters too much. hit head on wall

Sensory seekers

133

RAS does not filter enough.seek quietness dont like to be touched

Sensory avoiders

134

Peripheral nervous system PNS is broken down in two divisions

sensory and motor

135

Three main parts of the Peripheral

Sensory receptors,Peripheral neurons, Motor nerve endings

136

Peripheral neurons
Afferent (sensory)

(sensory)

137

Sensory receptors

detect stimuli

138

these carry to or away from CNS

Peripheral neurons

139

Motor nerve endings

makes a synapse with another structure muscle or glands

140

a change in neuron’s environment is a

Stimulus

141

the receptor will depolarize and initiate an impulse to the CNS.

Upon detection of a stimulus,

142

receptors that detect mechanical forces (e.g., touch, movement

Mechanoreceptors

143

mechanical forces are

touch, vibration sound

144

Mechanical forces deform the receptor, causing it to

generate an action potential

145

receptors that detect muscle length (stretch).

Proprioreceptors

146

receptors that detect fluid (blood) pressure.
.

Baroreceptors

147

receptors that detect touch.

Tactile receptors

148

How are sensory receptors classified if they are grouped based on the cue that activates the cell?

Classification of receptors by stimulus

149

What are the three ways that sensory receptors can be classified?

Stimulus,Location,Complexity

150

What are nociceptors?

Response to damaged stimuli and cause pain

151

What are mechanoreceptors? What are some examples of what they detect?

Responsive to mechanical forces
Touch, vibration, pressure, stretch

152

receptors that detect sounds change shape

Hair cells

153

detect temperature changes.
Mostly located in skin.
Two subtypes: warm and cold.

Thermoreceptors

154

cold Thermoreceptors

decrease in tempature

155

warm Thermoreceptors

increase in tempature

156

detect chemicals in solution.
Subtypes include:
Olfaction – smell.
Gustation – taste.
Blood sampling – detect solute (e.g., CO2, Na+) levels

Chemoreceptors

157

two chemicals in solution

Olfaction – smell & Gustation – taste

158

(pain receptors) detect tissue damage or stimuli associated with a condition that could damage tissue.
Located throughout body, except for brain

Nociceptors

159

detect light Found in retina of the eye.

Photoreceptors

160

Nociceptors are Located throughout body, except

for brain

161

the five classes of Stimulus receptors

Mechanoreceptors, Nociceptors, Photoreceptors, Chemoreceptors & Thermoreceptors

162

decrease in sensitivity to the presence of a continuing stimulus. coins on arm or getting used to a smell

Sensory adaptation

163

receptors do adapt to stimuli. most receptors are

Phasic

164

receptors do not adapt to stimuli.
Includes nociceptors and most proprioreceptors.

Tonic

165

Stimulus Location: stimulus occurs outside the body.

Exteroreceptors

166

Stimulus Location: stimulus occurs inside the body.Visceroreceptors Proprioreceptors

Interoreceptors

167

Structural Complexity

simple or complexed

168

general senses, single cell General senses Dendritic endings may be: Encapsulated or Unencapsulated

Simple

169

make up your Special senses, multiple cells organized into sensory organs.

Complex

170

Dendritic endings that are covered are

Encapsulated

171

Unencapsulated dendritic endings and encapsulated dendritic endings are two groups within what division of sensory receptor complexity called?

Simple receptors

172

Dendritic endings that are naked are

Unencapsulated

173

multiple cells organized into sensory organs.
Special senses.

Complex

174

Sensation of stimuli must be integrated into perception

Sensory Integration

175

– detection and conduction to CNS

Receptor level

176

processing in ascending pathways.

Circuit level –

177

processing cortical centers (conscious awareness of sensation

Perceptual level –

178

Somatosensory organization

Receptor level, Circuit level, Perceptual level

179

...

bundles of axons

180

Visceral pain sensation travels along same pathways as cutaneous pain sensation Leads to

referred pain

181

vasicules are from

whole nerve

182

Within a nerve, each axon is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the

endoneurium

183

The axons are bundled together into groups called

fascicles

184

each fascicle is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the

perineurium

185

ntire nerve is wrapped in a layer of connective tissue called the

epineurium

186

conduct signals from sensory neurons to the central nervous system

...

187

...

Efferent

188

What is a fascicle? (in terms of nerve structure)

bundle of axons within a nerve

189

What is an efferent only nerve? Afferent only?

Efferent only - motor only
Afferent only - sensory only

190

What types of information are sent to the brain from proprioceptors?

information related to body structure, position and stretch

191

What is the difference between complex and simple receptors?

Complex- sense organs
Simple- modified dendritic endings

192

has all sensory axons all going to the CNS

Sensory nerve

193

carries all axons away from the CNS

Motor nerve

194

the vagus nerve goes to torso

...

195

has sensory and motor axons

...

196

Vagus extends into

...

197

Twelve pairs. are numbered

anterior to posterior

198

...

Purely sensory:

199

...

Mostly sensory:

200

...

Mixed

201

...

Mostly motor

202

Dorsal = sensory goes

into soinal cord

203

Ventral = motor goes

out of spinal cord

204

Ventral form the

plexes

205

...

Dermatomes

206

Dermatomes are

area of skin innervated by sensory axons of a particular spinal nerve.

207

...

Nerve Plexuses

208

C1 to C5 is the –

Cervical plexus

209

C4 to T1 is the

Brachial plexus

210

L1 to L5
is the

Lumbar plexus anterior part of leg

211

L4 to Co
is the

Sacral plexus posterior part of leg

212

same plexus is called the

lubbo sacral plexus

213

two divisions of the ANS is

Sympathetic & Parasympathetic

214

fight or flight response

Sympathetic

215

rest and repair

Parasympathetic

216

runs unconsciously

ANS autonomic nervous system

217

...

Somatic NS

218

Somatic Nervous system always uses

ACH neurotransmitter

219

Somatic Nervous system is always

excitatory

220

Pathway consists of single neuron from CNS to effector

Somatic NS

221

Thick axon is heavily myelinated.

SNS

222

Neurotransmitter is ACh or NE

ANS

223

Pathways consists of two-neuron chain from CNS to effector.

Autonomic nervous system

224

...

Parasympathetic

225

int the Parasympathetic Long axons are.

preganglionic

226

in the Parasympathetic Very short axons are.

postganglionic

227

...

Sympathetic

228

in the Sympathetic the ____ preganglionic axons form plexuses.

Shorter

229

in the Sympathetic the ____ postganglionic axons.

Longer

230

Preganglionic axon are

Lightly myelinated

231

Parasympathetic & Sympathetic have

opposing effects

232

Postganglionic axon are

Unmyelinated

233

Parasympathetic division is also known as the

Craniosacral

234

Sympathetic division is also known as the

Thoracolumbar

235

Sympathetic

increases

236

Parasympathetic

decrease

237

Digestion
(salivation, enzyme production, motility)

Parasympathetic increases and the Sympathetic decreases

238

in the penis Parasympathetic causes

Erection

239

in the penis Sympathetic causes

Ejaculation

240

Receptors are usually modified endings of single neurons.
Widespread, all over body.

general senses touch temperature

241

Receptors are in sensory tissues or organs.Localized, confined to head.

special senses

242

an organism’s perception of
its world. Based on a blending of
general and special senses

Umwelt

243

Umwelt means

a perceptional world is different than another

244

inner Tunics of Eye is called the

retina

245

Anterior segment – aqueous humor.
Posterior segment – vitreous humor

...

246

more sensitive to light only have one pigment cannot see color

rods

247

see in colors the three colors are AND less sensitive to light

cones, RED GREEN AND BLUE

248

refract (bend) light waves entering the eye

both cornea and lens

249

The ____is fixed, but the

cornea

250

flexible so it can adjust the degree of refraction

lens

251

Myopic eye means you are

nearsighted up close far away blurry

252

Hyperopic eye means you are

farsighted see far away up close is blurry

253

Emmetropic eye means you are

normal

254

Rods contain a pigment called rhodopsin. When rhodopsin absorbs light it splits into retinal and opsin.
Opsin activates transducin (G protein).
Transducin activates phosphodiesterase (PDE).
PDE converts cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) into GMP.
Falling cGMP levels close cation channels leading to membrane hyperpolarization.
Degree of hyperpolarization is proportional to intensity of light.
Hyperpolarization stops release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter (glutamate) at synapses with bipolar cells.
No longer inhibited, the bipolar cells depolarize and release excitatory neurotransmitters on the ganglionic cells.
EPSPs in the ganglionic cells generate an action potential that travels along the optic nerve to the brain.
The brain interprets the pattern of impulses into an image

Phototransduction in Rods

255

Rods contain a pigment called .

rhodopsin

256

in Phototransduction what stops release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter (glutamate) at synapses with bipolar cells.

Hyperpolarization

257

When rhodopsin absorbs ______ into retinal and opsin.

light it splits

258

Similar to rods, but much less sensitive to light.

Stimulation of Cones

259

The pigments (photopsins or iodopsins) are formed by retina,and _____ (in red cones).

erythrolabe

260

The pigments (photopsins or iodopsins) are formed by retina,and ______(in green cones).
cyanolabe (in blue cones).

chlorolabe

261

The pigments (photopsins or iodopsins) are formed by retina,and ______(in green cones).
cyanolabe (in blue cones).

chlorolabe

262

Detection of chemicals dissolved into solution is called

Chemoreception

263

Two chemoreceptive special senses are

Olfaction (smell)
Organ is olfactory epithelium.
Receptors are olfactory receptor cells.

Gustation (taste)
Organs are taste buds.
Receptors are gustatory cell

264

retinal and opsin

...

265

what is vitamin A?

retinal

266

retinal is important for?

vision

267

steps in Phototransduction step 1

rhodopsin absorbs light it splits retinal and opsin

268

steps in Phototransduction step 2

Opsin activates transducin

269

steps in Phototransduction step 3

Transducin activates PDE

270

steps in Phototransduction step 4

PDE converts (cGMP) into GMP.

271

steps in Phototransduction step 5

cGMP levels close cation channels

272

steps in Phototransduction step 6

stops release glutamate

273

steps in Phototransduction step 7

depolarize and release excitatory neurotransmitters onto ganglionic cells.

274

steps in Phototransduction step 8

EPSPs in the ganglionic

275

steps in Phototransduction step 9

The brain interprets

276

steps in Olfactory Transduction

...

277

In cones, seeing variations in color if your seeing light blue

blue and green cones

278

In cones, seeing variations in color if your seeing orange or yellow

red cones and green cones

279

In cones, seeing variations in color if your seeing white

red, blue green cones

280

Olfaction (smell) the organs are

olfactory epithelium

281

Gustation (taste)organs are

taste buds

282

Olfactory receptor cell have

Olfactory cilia

283

Odor molecules (odorants) bind to receptor proteins in membrane of olfactory cilia.

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 1

284

Receptor activates G protein.

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 2

285

G protein activates adenylate cyclase.

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step3

286

Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP.

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 4

287

cAMP binds to cation channel.

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 5

288

Influx of cations (Na+ and Ca++) depolarizes cell.

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 6

289

The depolarized cell transmits an impulse to a neuron in the olfactory bulb, which carries the signal to the brain

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 7

290

Olfactory Transduction (Smelling)Step 1

...

291

Most taste buds are associated with the ,_________ but they occur throughout the oral cavity and pharynx

papillae of the tongue

292

the inner ear holds receptors for

hearing and equilibrium.

293

taste buds are

Gustatory cell

294

Gustatory cell have

Gustatory hairs

295

high level sour tastes can be

damaging to tissues

296

low level Sour detects

ascorbic acids and vitamin's

297

Taste Types Sour detects

acids

298

Taste Types Sweet detects

many carbohydrates, some proteins.

299

sweet tastes represent

energy for the body

300

Taste Types Salty detects

inorganic salts (ions)

301

Taste Types Bitter detects

alkaloids, spoiled foods, some toxins.

302

Bitter is what your

body don't want

303

Umami only reconized for the last

20 years

304

Umami detects

the presents of proteins

305

Umami means

Delicious taste

306

Taste Types Umami detects

glutamic acid.

307

Air
Tympanic membrane
Ossicles
Perilymph (of scala vestibuli)
Basilar membrane

how Sound waves (vibrations) are passed

308

outer ear is called

Auricle pinna

309

outer edge of the Auricle is called

Helix

310

Ear canal is called

(external auditory meatus,
external acoustic meatus

311

outer ear consist of the

Auricle Helix Lobule Ear canal Tympanic membrane (ear drum)

312

Middle Ear consist of the

Auditory ossicles: Malleus (hammer)Incus anvil)
stapes (stirrup)

313

This bone is attached to the Tympanic membrane

Malleus (hammer)

314

vibrations are passed along the

Auditory ossicles

315

when the stapes vibrates it pushes

on the oval window transfering vibrations to a fluid on the otherside of the membrane

316

Phayngotympanic tube allows

air to move swallow or yawn

317

in order for the Tympanic membrane to vibrate properly

air pressure has to be equal on both sides

318

Muscle that attaches to the Malleus is called

Tensor tympani muscle

319

Muscle that attaches to the stapes is called

Stapedius muscle

320

when the Tensor tympani muscle & Stapedius muscle contract it causesthe bones to

vibrate less dampen loud sounds

321

Cochlea is the organ for

hearing

322

Semicircular canals are attached to the

Vestibule

323

Semicircular & Vestibule are associated with

equilibrium

324

ear infections happen

in the middle ear

325

ear infections are dangerous because when fluids put pressure on the

Tympanic membrane

326

When stereocilia bend against the tectorial membrane,

the hair cells depolarize and send impulses to brain

327

Frequency is perceived as pitch.Short wavelength =

high frequency

328

High frequency sounds displace the _____ closer to the oval window.

basilar membrane

329

Tectorial membrane is

stiff and dosent move

330

Used to help body maintain posture and balance

Equilibrium

331

what membrane slides across hair cells

Otolithic membrane

332

are bent in direction of slide

Stereocilia

333

If stereocilia bend toward kinocilium,

hair cell depolarizes (increases impulse frequency

334

If stereocilia bend away from kinocilium, hair cell

hyperpolarizes (decreases impulse frequency)

335

Utricle are

horizontal movements.

336

Saccule are

vertical movements.

337

Types of Equilibrium -Static

Linear acceleration forces in a line

338

Types of Equilibrium - Dynamic

Rotational acceleration forces spinning

339

Dynamic Receptor organ is crista ampullaris, found in ampullae of semicircular canal

Anterior Posterior Lateral

340

in static equilibrium the Receptor organ is called

a macula, found in vestibule:

341

the two macula found in the vestibule are

Utricle, Saccule

342

Receptor organ is crista ampullaris, found in ampullae of

semicircular canal

343

deep pitch

longer wave length

344

high pitch

shorter wave length

345

longer wave length

pushes down through the scale of Scala vestibuli
away from stapes

346

shorter wave length

moves down the scale of media close to stapes

347

Stereocilia are damaged the hair

brakes off

348

Vision,Proprioreceptors,Vestibular apparatus
Vestibule,Semicircular canals together to get

sense of equilibrium

349

in the Endocrine System the signals are

hormones

350

Endocrine System Works with nervous system to

coordinate and control activity of body cells

351

in the Endocrine System Signals

may persist for long periods

352

in the Endocrine System Signals

are hormones

353

in the Endocrine System Signals

Responses are slower

354

in the Endocrine System Signals

Responses are more prolonged

355

Major Endocrine Glands that produce hormones are

the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organ

Pineal Pituitary thyroid Parathyroid and Adrenal glands

356

Hypothalamus assoiated and connected to it is

Pituitary GLAND

357

assioated with the brain

...

358

decreases in size when you age

Thymus

359

Endocrine glands lack

ducts

360

Exocrine glands usually sweat, sebaceous, salivary.

have ducts

361

Produce chemical messengers called hormones

Endocrine glands

362

affect distant cells

Endocrine

363

affect same cell.

Autocrine

364

affect neighboring cells

Paracrine

365

Two structural groups of hormones are

Amino acid based hormones & Lipid hormones

366

Lipid hormones are

Mostly steroids synthesized from cholesterol.
Includes sex hormones, aldosterone, cortisol.

367

Amino acid based hormones are

Amino acids, peptides, and proteins.
Includes majority of endocrine gland secretions

368

Most hormones are regulated by

negative feedback loops

369

uses a positive feedback loop

Oxytocin

370

Humoral Stimulus

A change in the concentration of a substance in body fluids causes hormone release

371

Neural Stimulus

Nerve fibers innervate the gland and stimulate release

372

Hormonal Stimulus

Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary to release hormones that stimulate other glands

373

As a whole most of the endocrine hormones are

Amino acids base

374

Hypothalamus releases

TRH

375

TRH has a positive effect on the Anterior pituitary causing it to release

TSH

376

TSH has a positive effect on the Thyroid gland releases

TH

377

When TH levels increase that acts as an inhibitor on the

Hypothalamus & pituitary

378

Hormone Receptors Membranous are

embedded in cell membrane

379

Hormone Receptors Intracellular is

inside the cell

380

Hormones generally regulate

homeostasis and slow, long-term processes

381

Receptor Regulation

A change in the number of cellular receptors

382

A change in the number of cellular receptors

...

383

Up-regulation =
Usually because of insufficient hormone levels.

increase.

384

Receptor Regulation Down-regulation
Usually because of excessive hormone levels

decrease.

385

Up-regulation =

...

386

With Type II diabetes mellitus, _____ This makes cells less responsive to insulin

cells down-regulate insulin receptors.

387

Pituitary Gland Has two lobes

Anterior lobe adenohypophysis
Posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)
Neural tissue.
Stimulated by innervation from hypothalamus

388

Hyposecretion in childhood

Pituitary dwarfism

389

Gigantism (childhood),Acromegaly (adulthood

Hypersecretion

390

Small gland at posterior of diencephalon

Pineal

391

Produces melatonin Strong antioxidant.
Production varies through day Helps regulate sleep-wake cycle

The Pineal Gland