HESI A2 A&P

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1

Which of the following structures has the lowest blood pressure?

vein

2

Which of the heart chambers is the most muscular?

Left ventricle

3

Which part of the brain interprets sensory information?

Cerebrum

4

Which of the following proteins is produced by cartilage?

collagen

5

Which component of the nervous system is responsible for lowering the heart rate?

parasympathetic nervous system

6

Which type of substance breaks down to form urea?

protein

7

What is the name of a joint that can only move in two directions?

hinge

8

Which of the following muscle types are the filaments arranged in a disorderly manner?

smooth

9

How much air does an adult inhale in an average breath?

500mL

10

Which type of cell secretes antibodies?

plasma cells

11

Which force motivates filtration in the kidneys?

blood pressure

12

Which of the following hormones decreases the concentration of blood glucose?

insulin

13

Which structure controls the hormones secreted by the pituitary glad?

hypothalamus

14

How much of a females blood vol is composed of RBC's?

40%

15

Which type of cholesterol is considered to be best for health?

HDL

16

Where are the vocal cords located?

larynx

17

Where does gas exchange occur in the human body?

alveoli

18

Which structure of the nervous system carries action potential in the direction of a synapse?

axon

19

Where is the parathyroid gland located?

neck

20

What is the name of the process in the lungs by which oxygen is transported from the air to the blood?

diffusion

21

What are the two types of cellular transport?

active and passive

22

How many basic tissue types does a human have?

four

23

Which of the following is not a type of muscle tissue?

adipose

24

Which of the following organ systems has the purpose of producing movement through contraction?

muscular

25

Which of the following terms means toward the front of the body?

anterior

26

The brain is part of the ____ system?

nervous

27

Which of the following is the name for the study of the structure and shape of the human body?

anatomy

28

Which of the following is the name for the study of how parts of the body functions?

physiology

29

Which of the below is the best definition for the term circulation?

the transport of oxygen and other nutrients to the tissues via the cardiovascular system

30

Which of the following is not a type of CT?

smooth

31

How many organ systems are in the human body?

eleven

32

Which organ system includes the spleen?

lymphatic

33

Which of the following terms means close to the trunk?

proximal

34

Which of the following does the integumentary system, the skin NOT do?

return fluid to the blood vessels

35

What does the term optic refer to?

the eye or vision

36

What are groups of cells that perform the same function called?

Tissues

37

When does the nuclear division of somatic cells take place during cellular reproduction?

mitosis

38

Which group of major parts and organs make up the immune system?

lymphatic system, spleen, tonsils, thymus, and bone marrow

39

What are the role of ribosomes?

make proteins

40

Which of the following is an example of a tissue?

chloroplast

41

the adrenal glands are part of the _____ system?

endocrine system

42

hemoglobin transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body, making oxygen available for cell use, what is hemoglobin?

protein

43

Which of the following statements describes the function of smooth muscle tissue/

it contracts to assist the stomach in the mechanical breakdown of food

44

Which of the following is not a product of respiration?

glucose

45

Of the following the blood vessel containing the least oxygenated blood is?

the pulmonary artery

46

Which structure in the brain is responsible for carousel and maintenance of consciousness?

reticular activating system

47

The triceps reflex _____.

force contraction of the triceps and extension of the arm

48

Which cranial nerve is responsible for hearing and balance?

CN VIII

49

Which gland is responsible for the regulation of calcium levels?

parathyroid glands

50

Which hormone is predominately produced during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?

progesterone

51

The pancreas secrets what hormone in response to low glucose levels?

glucagon

52

Which layer of the heart contains striated muscle fibers for contraction of the heart?

myocardium

53

What part of the cardiac conduction system is the most distal from the initial impulse generation and actually conducts the charge throughout the heart tissue?

perkinje fibers

54

Which blood vessel carries oxygenated blood back to the heart?

pulmonary vein

55

Which granulocyte is most likely to be elevated during an allergic reaction?

eosinophil

56

Which vit is essential for proper formation of clotting factors?

vit K

57

afferent lymph vessel carry lymph _____?

toward the lymph node

58

cricoid cartilage is found on the ____?

trachea

59

Which of the following is not found in the mediastinum?

xiphoid process

60

What is the proper order of the divisions of the small intestine as food passes through the gastrointestinal tract?

duodenum, ileum, jejunum

61

The primary function of gastrin is to _____?

stimulate secretion of gastric enzymes and motility of the stomach

62

the majority of nutrient absorption occurs in the ____?

small intestine

63

What is the approximate average bladder capacity in an adult?

500 ml

64

Which hormone regulates the amount of urine output?

angiotension 1

65

Where is the interstitial fluid found?

in tissues around the cells

66

What lab values would you expect to see in a patient with respiratory acidosis?

increased PaCO2 and decreased pH

67

Which range represents the normal pH of the body fluids:

7.35-7.45

68

What testicular cells secrete testosterone?

leydigs cells

69

Where does fertilization of an egg by a sperm occur?

fallopian tubes

70

Which cells are found in the skin and assist in boosting immune function?

langerhans cells

71

How does the endocrine sytem work with the reproductive system?

the endocrine system produces chemicals that regulate sexual funtion

72

What hormone controls mood, sleep, and appetite?

serotonin

73

which lobe of the brain is most posterior?

Occipital

74

Which of the following is an HDL cholesterol level that might warrant regular testing?

40

75

How does a transverse section divide the body?

into upper and lower regions

76

What is the function of amylase/

breaking down starch

77

The spleen is part of the ____ system?

lymphatic system

78

Which mineral is important for the formation of red blood cells/

copper

79

the dorsal body cavity is ____ to the ventral body cavity?

posterior

80

Which organ system is primarily responsible for preventing water loss/

integumentary

81

Which is an anterior feature of the human head?

the nose

82

What is the primary hormone secreted by the thyroid ?

T4

83

enlargement of the thyroid commonly know as a goiter, might be expected to affect ____.

swallowing

84

What kind of muscles are involved in peristalsis?

smooth muscles

85

why might certain young people be underweight?

They are growing in height faster than they are gaining weight

86

What might an injury to the parietal lobe affect?

perception

87

How does the digestive system work with the urinary system?

the urinary system eliminates some waste products of digestion

88

Which gland is located superior to the kidney?

adrenal

89

to what two systems might the urethra belong?

urinary and reproductive

90

the axial skeletal system contains all these except _____ .

radius

91

Which is an anterior muscle?

quadriceps femoris

92

how might a headrest on a car prevent traumatic injury?

by limiting the hyperextension of the neck

93

Which might you see in a whiplash injury?

traumatic injury to ligaments

94

muscle contractions that normally move food along the human digestive system are known as ?

peristalsis

95

Which type of nutrient does NOT provide the body with energy?

vitamins

96

Where would you be likely to find a Schwann cell?

nervous system

97

How does the nervous system work with the muscular system?

The nervous system tells the muscles how to respond to the environment

98

Which part of the nervous system includes the femoral radial and ulnar nerves?

somatic

99

Where might be a herniated lumbar disc be most likely to create pain?

along the sciatic nerve

100

What is the name of the bone in the human thigh?

femur

101

The ovaries are part of the ___?

reproductive system

102

Of the following processes which one is a different level of defense from the others?

body cells recognize a pathogen

103

Which organ system is primarily responsible for regulating muscle growth?

endocrine

104

Which part of the heart is separated by the Mitral valve ?

Left atrium and Left ventricle

105

How might Vit D deficiency present?

as crooked bones

106

How does the lymphatic system work with the circulatory system?

lymph draws excess fluid from the cells and deposits it into the blood vessels

107

What is the primary function of the parathyroid hormone?

activiating vit D

108

which feature of the ear is most medial/

cochlea

109

Which of the following is considered normal values for the measure of a persons pulse and blood pressure?

72 bpm and 120/80 mmHg

110

How does a sagittal section divide the body?

into right and left regions

111

The gall bladder is part of the ____ system.

digestive

112

Which is NOT an example of a nonspecific immune response?

production of antibodies

113

Which organ system is primarily responsible for regulating electrolytes?

urinary

114

What is the function of the coronary artery?

it supplies blood to the heart muscle

115

what condition might result from lack of Vit C?

scurvy

116

How does the muscular system work with the skeletal system/

muscles attached to tendons contract to bend the skeleton at the joints

117

What is not produced by the pituitary gland?

TRH

118

the ribs are ___ to the lungs in the human body?

anterior

119

What is the normal pH of the human arterial blood?

7.4

120

Which cut is considered a cross section?

cut through the transverse plane

121

The corpus callous facilitates communication between the ?

left and right brain

122

how does the integumentary system work with the nervous system?

touch input via the integumentary system sends messages to the nervous system

123

When the pulmonary valve and aortic valves open where can blood flow?

between the heart and the rest of the body

124

Which might be a result of a stenosis, or narrowing of a heart valve?

irregular heart beat

125

The human skull contains about how many bones?

30

126

the arteries are part of ____ system?

cardiovascular system

127

Which is a secondary defense for the body against pathogens?

inflammation

128

Which organ system is primarily responsible for storing minerals?

skeletal

129

The vena cavae drains blood from the body into the ____.

right atrium

130

Beriberi is a disease caused by the lack of ____ .

Thiamine

131

How is pepsin used in the body?

to break down proteins

132

The esophagus is part of the _____ system?

digestive

133

Which supports the function of the thyroid?

iodine

134

the cheekbones are ____ to the nose.

lateral

135

Which organ system is primarily responsible for generating antibodies?

lymphatic

136

The lateral side of the right knee would be ____.

farthest from the left knee

137

In which part of the lungs do nearly all the gaseous exchanges between air and blood take place?

alveoli

138

how do the intercostal muscles between the ribs assist with respiration?

by enlarging and reducing the space in the thorax

139

In which organ do muscles push food into the stomach via peristalsis?

esophagus

140

For the average person what is true about caloric intake?

it should decline with are after age 25

141

Which enzyme functions to break down a specific sugar?

lactase

142

the hypothalamus is part of the ____ system?

endocrine

143

Which mineral helps to maintain fluid balance in the body?

potassium

144

The skull is ____ to the spinal cord?

superior

145

Which organ system is primarily responsible for integrating voluntary movements?

nervous

146

What is the name of the structure that prevents food from entering the airway?

epiglottis

147

Which substance makes up the pads that provide support between the vertebrae?

cartilage

148

How many different types of tissue are there in the human body?

four

149

What is the name of the outermost layer of skin?

epidermis

150

Which hormone stimulates milk production in the breasts during lactation?

prolactin