Gene Structure and Replication Chapter 12 Set 2

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created 7 years ago by kathy_holleman
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Biology
Chapter 12
Biology, Summer, Dr. Kirk, Test 5
updated 7 years ago by kathy_holleman
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College: First year
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1

Which of the following statements about the 5'cap and mRNA processing is TRUE?

The addition of a 5' cap to mRNA occurs while the pre-mRNA is being made.

2

What is the function of the poly A tail?

The poly A tail increases mRNA stability in eukaryotes.

3

How many nucleotides are contained in a single codon?

3

4

Because more than one codon can specify the same amino acid, the genetic code is said to be

degenerate

5

Which of the following statements about the mRNA start codon is INCORRECT?

The start codon is usually GGA.

6

Which of the following is NOT a component of the translation machinery?

tRNA

7

Which of the following serves as the "translator" or intermediary between an mRNA codon and an amino acid?

tRNA

8

On which of the following processes would a defective ribosome have the most detrimental effect?

translation

9

An mRNA sequence is 5'AUG-GGC-ACU-CAU-ACU-UAA3', where AUG is the start codon and UAA is the stop codon. How many distinct aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are required to translate the mRNA sequence?

4

10

Which factors are needed to recognize the stop codon and disassemble the translation machinery?

release factors

11

What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of amino acids to tRNA molecules?

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase

12

If an mRNA sequence is 5'AUG-GGC-ACU-CAU3', what would the anticodon sequence be?

3'UAC-CCG-UGA-GUA5'

13

Which of the following statements about tRNA is FALSE?

tRNAs can be spliced by splicesomes.

14

The most common eukaryotic ribosome carries out its function in the

cytosol

15

Which of the following is released when an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase charges a tRNA?

AMP and pryophosphate

16

How many distinct aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases does each cell make?

~20

17

What molecule provides the energy for translation?

GTP

18

A ________ bond holds the amino acids of a growing polypeptide chain together during the elongation stage of translation.

peptide

19

The term N-terminus refers to the presence of a(n) ________ at the 5' end of a polypeptide.

amino group

20

Which sequence of events is most CORRECT for the initiation and elongation steps of translation?
(1) initiator tRNA binds start codon on mRNA
(2) small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA
(3) large ribosomal subunit binds
(4) tRNA entry and peptidyl transfer reaction
(5) translocation of ribosome and release of tRNA

2 small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA
1 initiator tRNA binds start codon on mRNA
3 large ribosomal subunit binds
4 tRNA entry and peptidyl transfer reaction
5 translocation of ribosome and release of tRNA

21

The following codons and the amino acids they encode is as follows:
AUG = Start or Met; UUU, UUC = Phe; UUA, UUG = Leu; UCU, UCC = Ser; CCU, CCC = Pro; ACU, ACC = Thr; UGA = Stop.
The 5'ACU-UUC-ACU-AUG-UUU-UUA-UCC-UCC-ACU-CCU-UGA3' mRNA transcript results in which of the following polypeptide sequences?

Met-Phe-Leu-Ser-Ser-Thr-Pro