Chapter 7

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1

What is the Function of the Skeletal System

Provides support and the internal frame work

2

Where are the blood cells made

bone marrow

3

What does the Skeletal System protect?

soft tissues

4

What does the skull protect?

the brain, ribs

5

What does the breastbone protect

vital organs: heart and lungs

6

What are the skeletal muscles attached to?

bones and internal organs

7

What vital tissue does the bone contain

red bone marrow

8

What does red bone marrow mean

red blood cell formation

9

What does the bone storage?

calcium

10

What important part does the bone play in the body?

maintaining homeostasis of blood calcium

11

What is a vital substance required for normal nerve and muscle function

homeostasis of blood calcium

12

The process of blood cell formation

HEMATOPOIESIS

13

The greek meaning for blood

hemo

14

Greek meaning "to make"

poiesis

15

Where is bone marrow found?

The Epiphysis

16

What is in between the Epiphysis and the Diaphysis?

The Physis

17

Where does the growing of cells take place a.k.a "The Growth Plate"

The Physis

18

What is the Diaphysis?

shaft

19

What is the Epiphyses

ends of the bones

20

The Four Types of bones?

long, short, flat, irregular, also sesamoid

21

What are osteocytes?

bone cells

22

What are Chondrocytes?

cartilage cells

23

Functions like a rubber cushion

Articular cartilage

24

Contains yellow bone marrow and is located inside the Diaphysis

medullary cavity

25

Whats also located in the bone?

porous

26

Surrounds the bone {outside the bone}

Periosteum

27

Inside the bone

Endosteum

28

where is the located yellow bone marrow located?

Diaphysis

29

Creates or forms new bones

osteoblast

30

breaks down bones

osteoclast

31

The process of Bone formation and Growth

osteoclast and osteoblast

32

As long as long as a layer of cartilage called ______________ remains between an epiphysis and diaphysis growth continues

epiphyseal plate

33

When does growth cease?

When the child has reached maturity {when all epiphyseal cartilage has transformed into bone}

34

What remains when growth has ceased?

epiphyseal line

35

Name two processes of bone formation

endochondral ossification and intramembranous
{most bones are developed}

36

center of ossification first appears

Diaphysis

37

Center of Ossification develops in

Epiphysis

38

How many bones in the body

206

39

How many bones does the Axial skeleton consist of

80

40

torsal, neck, and head what part of the skeleton do they belong

Axial

41

how many bones does the cranium have

8

42

Paranasal, Mastoid, Fontanels consist of what:

Cranium

43

how many normal curves are there

4

44

How many regions

2

45

Name the normal curves

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral

46

What are the convex curves

cervical and lumber

47

What are the concave curves

thoracic and sacral

48

how many abnormal curves are there

3

49

name the abnormal curves

lordosis, kyphosis, and scoliosis

50

"swayback"

lordosis

51

"hunchback"

kyphosis

52

abnormal curve

scoliosis

53

How many pairs of ribs are there

12

54

how many true ribs

14

55

what are the numbers of the true ribs

1-7

56

how many false ribs

10

57

what are the numbers of the false ribs

8-10

58

how many floating ribs

2

59

what are the numbers

11-12

60

How many bones are there in the Appendicular Skeleton

126

61

what is the appendicular skeleton

upper and lower extremity

62

Upper extremity that consist of the clavicle, scapula, forearm, wrist, hands etc.

pectoral girdle

63

Lower extremity that consist of the femur, tibia and foot

pelvic girdle

64

How many carpals make up hand

8

65

How many metacarpals

5

66

How many phalanges

14

67

there are two types of osteocytes what are they?

osteoblast and osteoclast

68

what term forms new bones

osteoblast

69

what terms breaks down existing bones

osteoclast

70

where is the yellow bone marrow located?

Diaphysis

71

What is the cartilage that acts as a cushion at the end of the bone

articular cartilage

72

what is the inside of the bone called?

medullary cavity

73

term that surrounds the outside of the bone

periosteum

74

term that is inside the bone

endosteum

75

sculpting

the ability to ossify, grow, change shape, heal after injury

76

what is the largest tarsal bone called?

calcaneus

77

What is the calcaneus

heel

78

How many metatarsals are there

5

79

How many tarsals

7

80

How many arches are in the foot

3

81

Name the arches

medial, lateral and transverse

82

weakened metatarsal also known as "flat foot" what is this called?

transverse

83

How many types of joints are there? Name them

3, Synarthrosis, Amphiarthrosis, Diathrosis

84

What is the joint that has movement

Diathrosis

85

what is the joint that has no movement

Synarthrosis

86

what is the joint that has slight movement

Amphiarthrosis

87

What holds the bones together

ligaments

88

what does the synovial membrane do?

secretes lubricating fluid

89

space between joints is called?

joint cavity

90

2 major skeletal disorders

osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma

91

disorder that affects the distal femur, more likely to happen to men,occurs between the ages of 20-40, treatment is surgical resection w/ pre &post operative chemotherapy

osteosarcoma

92

cancer of the hyaline cartilage, 2nd most most common cancer of skeleton tissues,treatment surgical resection only, affects ages 40-70

chondrocytes