Human Anatomy & Physiology Chap 5,6,8,9

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Human Anatomy and Physiology
Chapters 5, 6, 8, 9
skin, bones, joints muscles Benjamin-Cummings Publishing Company
updated 7 years ago by shad0wwitch
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1

Skin protect deeper tissues in forms of

chemical biologically and is a physical/mechanical barrier

2

skin helps get rid of

heat and holds heat

3

skin has many receptors that

detect change

4

skin absorbs V-D that

increases active absorption of calcium

5

Body temperature regulation if temperature increases

blood flow and sweet increase

6

Body temperature regulation if temperature decreases

blood flow decreases

7

Artrtiavenous anastomosis is a

connection

8

cardinal sign of tissue damage

anytime there is tissue damage

9

inflammation blood flow increases and capillaries become more

permeable

10

inflammation is a Reaction of living tissue

damage

11

when you cut into the dermis you cut

blood vessles

12

in healing of cuts fibroblasts migrate into area and make

collagen fibers

13

the symptoms of a first degree burn is

redness, swelling and pain

14

symptoms in second degree burn

blistering, redness swelling and pain healing time a month

15

symptoms in third degree burn

destroy epidermis and dermis loss of skin discoloration loss of fluid burn area is not painful but surrounding areas are high infection rate

16

Fibroblast make collagen fibers to

speed healing binding edges of wound

17

remove dead tissue and debris

Phagocytic cells in skin

18

- is limited to epidermis, sun exposures no scaring sunburn

1st degree burn injury

19

damage to epidermis and dermis Blistering 3-4 weeks heal time

2nd degree burns

20

biggest concern on a 3rd degree burn is

loss of fluids leading to dehydration and infection

21

grafted skin may be attacked by immune system using what kind of treatments?

homograph

22

corey was in texas and burned shoulders bad couldnt wear a

shirt

23

treatment of skin from same person places over burns

Autograph

24

treatment of cadaver skin. skin substitute non skin membrane

Homograph grafting

25

Rule of 9 is

analyzing burn damage body regions cover 9% or multiply of 9%

26

the whole head makes up % of body

9% 4 1/2% front and back

27

Total trunk makes up % of body

36% 18% front and back

28

each arm makes up % of body

9% 4 1/2 % front and back

29

each leg is % of body

9% 18% front and back total legs is 36%

30

perineum is % of body

1%

31

Scabs are

dried clotted blood

32

in deeper cuts blood vessels broken pooled blood clots when blood slows down fibroblast make fibers to bind wound together blood vessels regrow in area phagocytes remove dead tissues damaged tissue is replace by new tissue

Healing process

33

In bone you have living cells so bone is

A living tissue

34

Mane function is to make

framework and structure for the body

35

muscles pull on bones to cause

movement

36

are living, dynamic tissues that are constantly changing

Bones

37

is a slow process

repairing cartlege

38

lacuna are openings in the

cartilage matrec is wear the cells libe

39

Skeletal bones account for % of body mass

20%

40

Support (framework)protection. Movement. Storage. Minerals. Growth factors. Lipids. Blood cell formation

Functions of bone

41

No nerves or blood vessels. Chondrocytes in lacunae.

Skeletal Cartilages

42

perichondrium is what kind of tissue

dense irregular tissue

43

perichondrium is not found around

articular or fibrocartilage cartliage

44

perichondrium has

nerve endings and is vascular

45

Chondrocytes in the lacunae

maintain cartilage matrix

46

is mostly dense irregular tissue that surrounds cartilage

Perichondrium

47

Peri means

around

48

Perichondrium is

vascular

49

is not around fibrocartilage or articular cartilage

Perichondrium

50

is hyaline cartilage that is on an articulated surface of a bone

Articular cartilage

51

cartilage growth ceases in adolescents when

skeleton stops growing

52

two bones come together

Articular surface

53

mostly dense irregular tissue that surrounds cartilage. Have nerves and blood vessels. Not present around fibrocartilage or articular cartilage.

Perichondrium

54

The flexible matrix of cartilage can accommodate cellular growth via mitosis

Cartilage Growth

55

growth outside along and around edges

Appositional growth

56

when chondroblast convert into chondrocytes you?

you stop growing chondrocytes maintain

57

chondroblast are

cells that form cartilage that produce the cartilage matrix

58

growth in the middle of the cartilage interior

Interstitial growth

59

Cartilage growth

usually ceases in late adolescence when skeleton stops growing

60

Compact (cortical) matrix is Dense thick and smooth in appearance

Osseous (Bone) Tissue:

61

common name for compact bone is

cortical

62

common name for spongy bone is

cancellous

63

Cells that form cartilage that produce the cartilage matrix

Chrondroblast

64

when chrondroblast convert into chondrocytes

You stop growing

65

thick Dense and smooth in appearance

Osseous (Bone) Tissue: Compact bone (cortical)

66

Open, sponge-like appearance & Trabeculae are thin branching bars. Inner portion of the bone

Spongy (Cancellous) bone

67

Trabeculae meaning

arms

68

bone forming cells builds bone. Matrix-synthesizing cell responsible for bone growth

Osteoblast Bone Cells

69

break down bone matrix

Osteoclast

70

less active and maintain the matrix

Osteocyte

71

produce the bone matrix

Osteoblast

72

maintains bone. Less active Mature bone cell that maintains the bone matrix

Osteocyte Bone Cells

73

breaks down bone. Bone-reabsorbing cell

Osteoclast Bone Cells

74

organic collagen fibers

Osteoids

75

Hydroxylapatite & Osteoids are important for

function of bone

76

Hydroxylapatite give bone

its hardness

77

organic parts collagen fibers

Matrix Osteoid

78

calcium- phosphate salts give bone its hardness resist compression

Hydroxylapatite

79

Osteoid & Hydroxylapatite are important because?

Of Function of bone tention, tortion and compression

80

means pulling or stretching forces because of collagen fibers resist

Tension

81

bones are subject to these 3 types

torsion,tension & compression

82

means a twisting force bones are not as strong muscle pulls falling down bone breaks because of this

Torsion

83

means pushing or compact force bones are strong like jumping when you land

Compression

84

Bone breaks because of

torsional stress

85

Bone Tissue Components The organic portion helps

bone to resist stretching and twisting

86

Bone Tissue Components The inorganic portion

helps bone to resist compression

87

compact Bone organized in units called

osteons.

88

Spongy Bone Microscopy ??? are scattered throughout trabeculae, not arranged around osteons.

Osteocytes

89

Canaliculi are small canals that allow pathways for

diffusion of nutrients to the cells in the lacuna

90

Canaliculis is

a small canal

91

Spongy Bone Microscopy ??? travel through trabeculae

Canaliculi

92

outer layer Covered by periosteum or articular cartilage.

Compact bone

93

Compact bone is organized in units called

osteons also known as haversian systems

94

surrounding the central canal are layers of bone matrix called

Lamellae

95

an osteon is a cylindrical unit with a hollow passageway in the middle called

a central canal

96

in between the Lamellae there are small openings where cells live are called

lacune

97

Compact bone have

osteons

98

is the basic unit of structure of compact bone

An Osteon

99

???? and its concentrically arranged ????constituting the basic unit of structure in compact bone

a haversian canal & lamellae,

100

Canaliculi means

Narrow passageways that allow nutrients diffuse into the osteocytes lacuna

101

Canaliculi means

small canals

102

cells that maintain the bone matrix are called

osteocytes

103

in the Lacuna of an osteon the cells are called

osteocytes

104

are microscopic structures found in compact bone. They run within the osteons which are perpendicular to the Haversian canals, Perforating canals also carry small arteries throughout the bone

Volkmann’s canals

105

are short layers of bone matrix in-between the osteons

Interstitial Lamellae

106

long outside around the edge of matrix

Circumferential lamellae

107

have the same structure in the lamellae inside osteons

Interstitial Lamellae & Circumferential

108

Does not have osteons

Spongy bone (diploë)

109

Four classes of bone are

long, short, flat irregular bones

110

Bone Structure have red bone marrow

Short, Flat, & Irregular

111

Spongy bone thin branches of bony matrix found in the

ends of long bones

112

Canaliculi travel through the

trabeculae

113

Trabeculae are usually composed of

dense fibrous tissue, mainly of collagen

114

In the spongy bone between the Trabeculae

you have red bone marrow

115

long axis cylinder with large ends
long as they are wide

Long Bone

116

looks like a cube
filled with spongy bone
does not have a long axis

Short Bone

117

small sesame seeds that grow inside of tendons where there is pressure or stress the patella carpals of the hand

Sesamoid bone

118

Sesamoid bones are

a special type of short bone grow inside of tendons

119

People who do a lot of shooting, athletes, using the same motion over and over, dancers stress on toes get ?? bones

Who gets Sesamoid bones?

120

have thin layer of spongy bone in the middle

Flat Bone

121

sutures of the skull where the bones interlock special type of flat bone

Sutural (wormian)

122

What kind of nationality of people have a high incident of suture bones

Native Americans

123

doesn’t fit anywhere else

Irregular Bone

124

outer layer of compact bone and inner medullary cavity central portion

Dadiaphis

125

becomes thinner and has spongy bone through out

Epiphyses compact bone

126

Cavity inside the Dadiaphis is called

Medullary Cavity

127

Medullary Cavity is lined with

Endosteum

128

Cortex is

outer layer

129

Medullar is

inner layer Middle

130

Compact bone is also known as

Cortical bone

131

in Cortical bone middle is the

medullary cavity

132

where the long bone lengthens or grows from

Epiphyseal plate

133

growth plate when young it is made of cartilage

Epiphyseal line –

134

have articular cartilage around outside

Epiphysis

135

hyaline cartilage is called articular cartilage because

the Epiphysis articulate or join with other bones

136

outer covering on the outside of every bone you have the

periostem

137

runs parallel to the long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels, nerves and lymph vessels through the bony matrix

Central(haversian) canal

138

inner membrane lining around the inside of every bone

endosteum

139

what is lined with endosteuum?

Medullary Cavity

140

layer that is closer to the compact bone is called the

osteogenic

141

the outer layer is called

fibrous layer made of dense irregular tissue

142

osteoblast line the outside of?

COMPACT BONE

143

periosteum has 2 sub layers they are

fibrous and osteogenic

144

sharpeys fibers makes it so the

periostium stick to compact bone

145

osteogenic means

bone growing

146

bones joined by fibrous tissue

Fibrous joint

147

slightly movable joints

amphiarthroses

148

the irregular edges of the bones interlock and are united by very short connective tissue fibers

suture

149

the articulating ones are connected by short ligaments of dense fibrous tissue: the bones do not interlock

syndesmoses

150

a tooth is secured in a bony socket y the periodontal ligament

gomphosis

151

freely movable joints

diarthroses

152

lacunae arranged in concentric circles around the central cana

Circumferential lamellae

153

cavity are often pared

Medullar & Cortex

154

Membrane inside of bones inner lining

Endosteum

155

what membrane is outside of compact bone outer covering

Periosteum Membrane

156

What membrane has 2 sub layers

Periosteum Membranes

157

Periosteum Membrane has 2 sub layers In long bone structure there is the

membranes and bone marrow

158

Periosteum Fibrous layer is an

outer layer made of dense irregular of connective tissue

159

has lots of osteoblast closer to the compact bone means bone growing

Periosteum Osteogenic layer

160

what do osteoblast do

make the bone thicker

161

what is an osteoblast

bone germinator

162

osteogenic layer consist of

primarily of bone forming cells

163

Osteoclast ARE

bone destroying cells, bone breakers

164

osteogenic cells are

stem cells

165

what do Sharpeys fibers do?

stick to the compact bone

166

Yellow Bone Marrow in medullary cavity in adults is

made of adipose tissue

167

Red Bone Marrow medullary cavity in children make

blood cell formation

168

Short Flat and irregular bones are similar in structure but they don’t have

medullary cavitys full of spongy bone

169

lined by the endosteum

spongy bone

170

Spongy bone found on the inside is refereed to as

diploe

171

intramembranous happens with

bones of the skull

172

intramembranous means

bones grow inside of membranes

173

endochondral means

inside of cartliege

174

endochondral

all the rest of the bones

175

Bone Development Ossification (osteogenesis)is

formation of bone tissue

176

Bone Development Embryonic skeleton is composed of

flexible membranes and hyaline cartilage.

177

What begins about 8 weeks in utero.

Ossification

178

Intramembranous bone development bones grows

inside of membrane it Occurs in skull and clavicles

179

Endochondral bone development

bones grow in the rest of the body

180

1st Step of Intramembranous Ossification is cells cluster together to make

an ossification center appear making osteoblast

181

Step 2 Intramembranous Ossification - grow ...start making Bone matrix is grow making bone and

cells become osteocytes. dividing cells blast increase in number

182

step 3 of Intramembranous Ossification bones make Woven bone grow together and pcscp

make spongy bone & cells along edges form the periosteum

183

in step 4 of Intramembranous Ossification Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, just deep to the periosteum. Red marrow appears

...

184

bone grows inside the cartilage model

Endochondral Ossification

185

Endochondral also known as

intracartlagionus ossification

186

in a long bone you start off with a primary ossification center that will become???? then forming bone collar

the diayphsis

187

Endochondral Ossification: Step 1 you start off with a?? and bone collar is laid down around the diaphysis of

hyaline cartilage model

188

Endochondral Ossification: Step 2 Cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and develops cavities Cells within calcified area are cut off from nutrients and die. Cavity forms where cells died.

Ossification expands cells die

189

Endochondral Ossification: Step 5 The epiphyses ossify. When completed,it becomes? and articular cartilages can grow.

hyaline cartilage remains only in the epiphyseal plates

190

Long bones grow until your

20-25

191

Endochondral Ossification: Step 4 The diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms at birth Diaphysis lengthens as bone tissue formation chases growth of hyaline cartilage. .

Diaphysis ossifies bone collar merges with bone matrix

192

Small bones finish growing

15-20 years old

193

The epiphyseal plate is really a joint between separate bones (the epiphysis and diaphysis). This is one reason why children have more bones than adults. Cartilage is weaker than bone and is more prone to breaking. Breakage can cause abnormal growth.

Long Bones in Childhood

194

Bone growth in childhood is mostly controlled by growth hormone.

Hyaline cartilage cells at epiphyseal plate continue to mitose, calcify, and erode. Process ceases when entire plate calcifies (15-25 years old).

195

growth in length of long bones occur at the .

epiphyseal plate

196

Hypertrophic zone .

Older cartilage cells enlarge.

197

Matrix becomes calcified; cartilage cells die; matrix begins deteriorating

Calcification zone

198

Resting zone is a place that cells not doing anything

chondrocytes

199

growth in length of a long bone occurs at the

epiphyseal plate

200

the major driver for bone growth in children is

growth hormone a hormone produced by the pituitary gland

201

what zone does cartilage undergo mitosis

Proliferation zone

202

what zone does older cartilage cells enlarge

Hypertrophic zone

203

what zone does matrix becomes calcified cartilage cell dies matrix begin deteriorating

Calcification zone

204

Hypertrophy is

abnormal large growth

205

what zone does new bone formation is occurring

Ossification zone

206

Bone Thickening ,grows around the edges is Also known as?

appositional growth.

207

In Childhood the major driver for bone growth is growth hormone, A hormone produced by the

pituitary gland

208

appositional growth causes bone to increase in diameter. Happens in long bones

Bone Thickening / appositional growth.

209

In bone thickening Osteoblasts deposit bone matrix under the periosteum

the periosteum

210

In bone thickening Osteoclasts remove bone matrix

under endosteum.

211

in appositional growth osteoBlast Deposit bone matrix

under the periostum

212

in appositional growth osteoClast Remove bone matrix

under endosteum

213

are living tissues

Bones

214

Bones are under constant construction. skeleton are completely replaced about every 10 years

Bone Remodeling

215

Two main drivers for bone remodeling are

Hormonal mechanism, Mechanical stress mechanism

216

Hormonal Mechanism Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Produced by the

parathyroid glands

217

blood calcium is between 9-11 mm

In homeostasis of calcium in the blood.

218

Parathyroid hormone Increases when

blood calcium is low

219

Parathyroid hormone Causes increased activity of

osteoclasts to resorb mineral matrix

220

in Hormonal Mechanism What is Produced by thyroid gland?

Calcitonin

221

Calcitonin has a weaker effect than

PARATHYROID HORMONES

222

Calcitonin Increases when

blood calcium is high.

223

Calcitonin Causes osteoblasts to generate more

mineral matrix

224

Calcitonin has a weaker effect than the

Parathyroid hormone

225

a hormone released by apidose tissue, decreases spongy bone but increases compact bone

Leptin,

226

bone grows or remodels in response to the demands placed on it. Bone are strongest where stress is greatest

Wolff’s law

227

Astronauts who are in space need regular exercise if they don’t exercise in space they can lose What?
because they are not walking around with gravity, gravity pulls on the body causing stress to be placed on bone and the bone Does what?.

bone density decreases,,,,, bones start to thin losing bone density

228

bones become fragile and prone to breakage

Osteoporoetic bone

229

Osteoporosis occurs in??? BECAUSE OSTEOBLAST INCREASES

postmenopausal women

230

bone resorption outpaces bone deposit

Osteoporosis

231

SEX HORMONES INCREASE

OSTEOBLAST ACTIVITY

232

estrogen decreases testosterone & estrogen increase osteoblast decrease

post-menopausal women

233

Bone Fractures Despite their ability to resist tension and compression, bones sometimes fracture. Classification of fractures:

Displaced/nondisplaced Complete/incomplete Compound/simple

234

What are the3 types of bone cells

osteo- clast,blast & cite

235

osteocyte

maintain

236

osteoblact

build bone

237

osteoclast

break it down/destroy bone

238

as an adult osteoblast & osteoclast

producing and depositing

239

IS a break in the bone

fracture

240

in non-displaced fractures the bone

retain normal position

241

displaced fractures the bone have

moved out of normal position alignment

242

if bone is broken through it is

a complete fracture

243

if bone doesn't break through

an incomplete fracture

244

bone penetrates the skin

open compound fracture

245

bone doesn't penetrate skin

closed compound simple fracture

246

ragged break occurs when twisting is applied to bone common sports enjury

spiral fracture

247

Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks. Only one side of the shaft breaks, the other side bends.

greenstick

248

broken bone pressed inward common skull fracture

Depressed fracture

249

bone is crushed

compression fracture

250

epiphysis separates from the diaphysis along the epiphseal plate

epiphseal fracture

251

bone fragments into three or more pieces

comminuted fracture

252

in bone repair realigned of broken ends means

Reduction

253

in bone repair When ends are manually repositioned means

closed reduction

254

in bone repair When ends are secured surgically with hardware

open reduction

255

in bone repair When broken ends held in place occurs with a cast

immobilization

256

small breaks on small bones take

6-8 weeks to heal

257

First step in bone repair is

a hematoma forms

258

second step in bone repair is

soft fibrocalagionus callus forms

259

third step in bone repair is

bony callus forms

260

fourth step in bone repair is

bone remodeling occurs

261

tolerates repeated bending
ex. external ear and epiglottis

Elastic cartilage

262

Provides sturdy support with some resilience or "give"

Hyaline Cartilage

263

which cover the one ends at movable joints

Articular cartilage

264

bones of the limbs or appendages

Appendicular Skeleton

265

those one that lie around the body's center of gravity

Axial Skeleton

266

a thin area of hyaline cartilage that provides for longitudinal growth of the bone during youth

epiphyseal plate

267

thin bone covering the epiphyseal plate after the growth stops

epiphyseal line

268

Forms the long axis of the bone. it is constructed of a thick collar of compact bone that surrounds a central Medullary cavity or marrow cavity.

Diaphysis

269

are the bone ends.

Epiphyses

270

involve Parathyroid horamone (PTH) is released when blood level of ionic calcium decline.

Hormanal influences: Primary

271

Internal bone surface are covered with a delicate connective tissue mambrane

Endosteum (en-dos te um)

272

reduction in rate of bone formation.

Osteoporosis

273

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by pus-forming bacteria that enter the body via a wound.

Osteomyelitis

274

A prominence or projection

Process

275

A hematoma forms
Fibrocartilaginous callus forms
bony callus forms
bone remodeling occurs

Fractures and healing process

276

A large somewhat blunt process

Trochanter

277

a nodule or small rounded process

Tubercle

278

A rounded prominence that articulates with another bone.

condyle

279

A groove

Sulcus

280

A sharp prominent bony ridge

Crest

281

a smooth nearly flat articular surface

Facet

282

A depression, often used as an articular surface

Fossa

283

A pit generally used for attachment rather than for articulation.

Fovea

284

A hole

Foramen

285

A canal

Meatus

286

the articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage

cartilaginous joints

287

the bones are connected by a broad,flat disc of fibrocartilage

symphyses

288

the bony portions are united by hyaline cartilage

synchondroses

289

those in which the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid

synovial joint

290

When it comes to movement and stability synarthrosis are

very stable

291

When it comes to movement and stability amphiarthrosis are

moderately stable

292

When it comes to movement and stability diarthrosis are

less stable

293

diarthrosis are what kind of joints

freelt movable

294

amphiarthrosis are what kind of joints

slightly movable

295

synarthrosis are what kind of joints

immovable

296

in structural classification fibrous joints are

bones attached by dense connective tissue

297

in structural classification cartilaginous joints are

bones held together by cartilage, bones attached by a pad or plate

298

in structural classification snyovial joints are

bones separated by a cavity converted by cartilage and attached by dense connective tissue

299

most complex structural joint

synovial joint

300

if you compare functional and structural classifications of joints fibrous joints are almost always

synarthrosis immovable

301

if you compare functional and structural classifications of joints cartilaginous are almost always

amphiarthrosis slightly movable

302

if you compare functional and structural classifications of joints synovial joints are always

diarthrosis freely movable

303

narrow opening

fissure

304

Raised area on or above a condyle

Epicondyle

305

Where 2 bones meet

Joint

306

Only moves in 1 direction e.g Elbow

Hinge joint

307

Slight movement

Gliding joint

308

Incases the synovial fluid

Synovial membrane

309

Lubricates joints

Synovial fluid

310

Connects bones to bones. Stretchy

Ligaments

311

Connects bones to muscles. Not stretchy

Tendons

312

Pair of muscles that work together to move bones at a joint.

Antagonistic pair

313

Get smaller

Contract

314

get larger

relax

315

Disease that makes the bones rub together.

Arthritis

316

Bones get brittle because of lack of calcium.

Osteoporosis

317

WHAT CHARACTERISTICS DO ALL JOINTS HAVE IN COMMON?

MOVEMENT

318

IN WHICH DIRECTION DOES THE SHOULDER USUALLY DISLOCATE?

DOWNWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THE HUMEROUS

319

BONES ARE FORCED OUT OF THEIR NORMAL POSITION IN THE JOINT CAVITY

DISLOCATION.

320

JOINTS BETWEEN PROXIMAL PHALANGES AND METACARPAL BONES

CONDYLOID

321

DESCRIBE THE TISSUE TYPE AND FUNCTION OF THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES IN RELATION TO A SYNOVIAL JOINT:bursa

BURSA

Fibrous connective tissue; the bursa prevents friction within the joints

322

DESCRIBE THE TISSUE TYPE AND FUNCTION OF THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES IN RELATION TO A SYNOVIAL JOINT:
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

SOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUE; The synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid which serves to lubricate the joint and reduce the friction between bones in joints

323

DESCRIBE THE TISSUE TYPE AND FUNCTION OF THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES IN RELATION TO A SYNOVIAL JOINT:

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE

CONNECTIVE TISSUE; To cusion the bones from rubbing and smacking on each other. It also allows gliding motion.

324

CHARACTERIZED BY CARTILAGE CONNECTING THE BONY PORTIONS

CARTILAGINOUS

325

typically ALLOWS A SLIGHT DEGREE OF MOVEMENT

CARTILAGINOUS

326

requirements for healthy bone

physical stress

327

bone density increases with

repetitive stressors

328

in terms of bone health which is better swimming? or weightlifting?

weightlifting

329

repetitive stress can cause an increase in

bone density and strength

330

astronauts lose what in space

bone density

331

calcium is needed for what?

bone matrix

332

what is needed calcium absorption

Vit-D

333

Vit- A is needed for
bone cannot grow without

Osteoblast & Osteoclast functioning

334

Vit-C is needed for
bone is thin and brittle without

collagen synthesis

335

rickets is common in 3rd world countries and it is common in children that have

inadequate minerals bones become soft caused of lack of calcium

336

bone has a lot of

collagen fibers

337

growth hormone is produced by the

pituitary gland

338

pituitary gland stimulates

mitosis of cells in the cartilage

339

encourages replacement of cartilage with bone

thiroxin

340

when growth plates close

growing stops

341

promote formation of bone tissue like testosterone and estrogen

sex hormones gonads

342

regulate bone density based on blood calcium

parathyroid glands & Calcitonin

343

promote osteoblast activity increase so you lay down more bone matrix

sex hormones

344

when blood calcium levels get low it increases osteoclast activity bone matrix is reduces

PTH Parathyroid Hormone

345

is released when calcium blood levels are high causing osteoblast to increase activity

Calcitonin Thyroid gland

346

Thyroid gland is also named

CalcitoninThyroid gland

347

Movement away from the mid-line of the body

abduction

348

Movement towards the mid-line of the body

adduction

349

Bending the limbs at a joint.

flexion

350

A circular movement around a fixed point

rotation

351

Weakest part of the skeleton

Joints

352

Fancy name for joint is

articulation

353

Articulations are junction between

bone

354

Functional classification Synarthroses

immovable joints skull

355

Functional classification Amphiarthroses

slightly movable spine

356

Functional classification Diarthroses

freely movable fingers wrist sholders

357

Syndesmosis means

bones are connected by a ligament

358

The functional classification is based on

the amount of movement allowed

359

Cartilaginous joints are almost always

Amphiarthroses

360

Fibrous joints are almost always

synarthroses

361

Synovial joints are almost always

Diarthroses

362

Synchondroses hyaline cartilage common in the

epiphyseal plate Cartilaginous

363

Three types of fibrous joints are

Suture, Syndesmosis, Gomphosis

364

Symphyses articular/joint fibro cartilage grow together

Cartilaginous joints

365

Syndesmos is

ligament

366

is connected by lose connective tissue soft tissue

Synovial membrane

367

the articulating bone ends are connected by a plate or pad of cartilage
38

cartilaginous joints

368

bones joined by fibrous tissue

Fibrous joint

369

articular disc wedge or disc of fibrocartilage fits joint & stabilize reduce ware. inproves fit of a joint

Meniscus

370

Synovial fluid carries nutrients to

articular cartilage

371

Meniscus found in the

tmj scj acj distal ruj and knee

372

its an extension sits between soft tissue and bone extension of snoyvial membrane

Bursa sac of snoyvial fluid

373

modified bursa that wraps around tendon bun around hotdog protects the tendon from abrasion and ware

Tendon sheath

374

6 types of snyovila joints

plane, hinge pivot condyloid saddle ball and socket

375

Gliding flat or slightly curved carpal joints ankle joints

Plane joint

376

concave surface fits around convex movement of single plane elbow joint

Hinge joint

377

convex sits inside a

concave bone

378

cylindrical fits in ring twisting of axis c1/c2

Pivot joints

379

movement multiple planes radiocarpal joints

Condyloid ellispsoidal joint

380

are shape ligaments and muscles that cross affect the mobility of the joint

Factors that affect mobility

381

those in which the articulating bone ends are separated by a joint cavity containing synovial fluid

synovial joint

382

abduction of the spine left or right

lateral flexion

383

adduction of the spine

reduction

384

Run longitudinally through each muscle fiber
Surrounding by a sheath of sacoplasmic reticule (calcium ions)

Myofibrils
Myofilments are the contractile units that run through the myofibrils (actin,myosin)

385

what joint disease does a trex suffer from

gout

386

What tissue is is striated long cells and is voluntary

Skeletal tissue

387

What tissue is short has branched cells intercalated discs and is involuntary

Cardiac tissue

388

what tissue is thin tapered cells with no straiations and is involuntary

Smooth tissue

389

Excitability, Contractility, Extensibility and Elasticity are all Characteristics of what?

Muscle Tissue

390

In muscle tissue excitability means what?

the ability to respond to a stimulus

391

are you an ptmosist your an excitable

...

392

In muscle tissue contractility means what?

to contract and shorten unique to muscle

393

In muscle tissue extensibility means what?

pull beyond its normal resting. strechy

394

In muscle tissue elasticity means what?

snap back to resting position

395

Myo and Mys mean myofillment myofibral
epimysiom perimysom endomysiom

Muscle

396

MYS means

mouse

397

Sarco means
sacroplasm, sacrolemma, sacromear

Fleash

398

lemma means

husk

399

Muscle Fiber for skeletal/smooth muscle means

CELL

400

Movement ,Maintaning Posture, Stablizing Joints , Generating heat are what?

Majore Functions of Muscle

401

Cardiac and smoothe cause what kind of movement

internal Movement

402

Keeps bones in place is what major function of muscle

stablizing joints

403

Pulling muscles on bones is what major function of muscle

Movement

404

Cause compression of organs or the lungs cannot inflate if you done correctly use causing a disfunction this major function of muscle

Maintaing Posture

405

whole muscle is wrapped by

epimysium sheaths

406

each fascicle has its own connective tissue covering

perimysium sheaths

407

inside the perimysiun muscle fibers cells are wrapped by

endomysium sheaths

408

a whole muscle is an

organ

409

muscles contract or shiver with short rapid contraction is what major function of muscle

generatng heat

410

tendon what connects muscle to bone? and has what kind of tissue

Tendon dense regular tissue

411

Muscle attaches to

skeleton

412

if a tendon is connect muscle to bone its called an

indirect attachment

413

the differences between a tendon and an aponeurosis is

shape

414

tendon shape is like a

rope

415

is a point of attachment that dosnt move during contraction

origin attachment

416

is a point of attachment that does move during attachment

insertion attachment

417

insert during contractions insertions towords moves origions

...

418

the plasma membrane of a muscle cell gets a special name called the

sarcolemma

419

myfibriles cause the

contraction of muscle

420

sacroplasmmic reticulum main function

stores calcium ions

421

myoglobin store what

store oxygen

422

glycosomes is an inclusion that stores

glycogen

423

thin filaments attach directly

z disc

424

attach titen elastic filaments

myosin

425

is a chain of sarcomere attach end to end

a myfibril

426

sarsomere are the basic units within the

myofiber

427

I BANDS ARE WHAT IN COLOR

LIGHT

428

A BANDS ARE WHAT IN COLOR

DARKER

429

A BANDS ARE WHERE YOU HAVE THE

THICK MYOSIN FILLMENTS

430

MDURING CONTRACTION THE z DISCS MOVE

CLOSER TOGETHER

431

CONTRACTIONS OF MUSCLES IS DUE TO

SARCOMERES SHORTNING

432

ACTON SLIDE

ACROSS MYO FILLMENTS

433

MYOSIN ARE MADE UP OF

MYSON PROTINES

434

ACTON AND MYOCIN

BIND TOGETHER

435

is an actin-binding protein that regulates actin mechanics. It is important, among other things, for muscle contraction

TROPOMYOSIN

436

EVENTS AT NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

SIGNAL TERMINAL,CA++ OPEN,MOVE IN,RELEASE ACH INTO CLEFT, ACH BIND TO RECEPTORS, PERMEABILITY CHANGES

437

THE CONNECTION BETWEEN NERVE CELLS AND MUSCLE CELLS IS CALLED A

NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION

438

SKELETAL MUSCLE IS

VOLUNTARY

439

IN REPOLARIZATION OUT AND BECOMES NEG INSIDE

...

440

TROPONIN

a complex of muscle proteins

441

I BANDS ARE WHERE YOU DONT HAVE

MYOSIN FILLMENTS

442

n muscle cells, the long coiled-coil tails of the individual myosin molecules join together, forming the thick filaments of the

sarcomere

443

O/I can flip depending on state of contractions of other muscles

O/I can flip depending on state of contractions of other muscles

444

the difference between origin and attachment

is the direction of movement that occurs

445

aponeurosis shape is

flat sheet

446

Muscles attaches to

tendons dense regular tissue

447

LEAK CHANNELS ALLOW MORE GOING OUT THAN NA IN

ALLOW MORE K GOING OUT THAN NA IN

448

MEMBRANE POTENTIAL REFEREES TO A DIFFERENCE IN CHARGE BETWEEN THE

INSIDE AND OUTSIDE OF A MEMBRANE

449

RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL AT REST THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN CONCENTRATION AND A DIFFERENCE IN MEMBRANE POTENTIAL SO ITS MORE

NEGATIVE INSIDE THE CELL

450

IN A RESTING MUSCLE CELL THE INSIDE OF THE CELL IS

NEGATIVE

451

AT REST ITS THE MEMBRANE POTENTIAL

-70mV
-k IS HIGHER INSIDE -Na IS HIGHER OUTSIDE

452

a change in a cell's membrane potential, making it

more positive, or less negative

453

highly ORGANIZED

MUSCLE TISSUE

454

housemaid's knee is an inflammation of the prepatellar bursa at the front of the knee It is marked by swelling at the knee, which can be tender to the touch but which does not restrict the knee's range of motion

Prepatellar bursitis