A&P II Lecture review Respiratory System (Test 3 Part 2)

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1

What are the 5 functions of the respiratory system?

1. Provide extensive gas exchange surface area

2. move air to and from gas exchange surface area

3. protects respiratory surfaces from outside

4. produces sounds

5. participates in olfactory sense

2

Where is the division line for the upper and lower respiratory tracts?

the layrnx

3

What makes up the conduction portion of the respiratory tract?

nasal cavity to bronchioles

4

What makes up the respiratory portion?

bronchioles to alveoli

5

Why are alveoli ideal for gas exchange?

they have very thin walls and a huge surface area

6

The respiratory defense system consists of a series of ______________ mechanisms that removes particles and pathogens.

filtration

7

What are the components of the RS defenses?

Mucous cells and glands

Cilia

Filtration in nasal cavity

Alveolar macrophages

8

This is the inflammation of bronchial walls and causes constriction and breathing difficulty.

Bronchitis

9

Bronchioles branch into __________ _________.

Terminal bronchiols

10

True or False:

Bronchioles have no cartilage and are dominated by smooth muscle.

True

11

This regulates smooth muscle, controls diameter of bronchioles, and controls airflow and resistance in lungs.

Autonomic control

12

This is the dilation of bronchial airways, caused by sympathetic ANS activation, and reduces resistance.

Bronchodilation

13

This constricts the bronchi, is caused by parasympathetic ANS activation and histamine release (allergic reaction).

Bronchoconstriction

14

This is the result of excessive stimulation and bronchoconstriction and stimulation severely restricts airflow.

Asthma

15

Each terminal bronchiole delivers air to a single ________ _______.

pulmonary lobule

16

Each pulmonary lobule is supplied by pulmonary ________ and _______.

arteries

veins

17

Each terminal bronchiole branches to form several ________ ____________, where gas exchange takes place.

Respiratory bronchioles

18

Respiratory bronchioles are connected to alveoli along ________ _______.

alveolar ducts

19

Alveolar ducts end at ________ ______.

alveolar sacs

20

Alveolar epithelium consists of what?

simple squamous epithelium

thin, delicate pneumocytes type I

21

Alveolar epithelium are patrolled by what?

alveolar macrophages

22

Alveolar epithelium contains pneumocytes type II that produce what?

Surfactant

23

This is an oily secretion that contains phospholipids and proteins. It coats alveolar surfaces and reduces surface tension.

Surfactant

24

This is difficult respiration due to alveolar collapse and is caused when pneumocytes type II do not produce enough surfactant.

Respiratory distress syndrome

25

What are the three layers of the respiratory membrane?

1. Squamous epithelial cells lining the alveolus

2. Endothelial cells lining an adjacent capillary

3. Fused basement membranes between the alveolar and endothelial cells

26

This is the inflammation of the lobules. It causes fluid to leak into alveoli and compromises the function of respiratory membrane.

Pneumonia

27

The alveolar capillaries are the site of what enzyme?

ACE

28

Venous blood by passes the ________ circuit and flows into the pulmonary veins.

Systemic

29

True or false:

Blood pressure in the pulmonary circuit is low.

True

30

Pulmonary vessels are easily blocked by what?

Blood clots

fat

air bubbles

31

When a pulmonary blockage occurs, what is it called?

Pulmonary embolism

32

Respiration refers to what two integrated processes?

1. External respiration

2. Internal respiration

33

What are the three processes of external respiration?

1. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)

2. Gas diffusion (across membranes and capillaries)

3. Transport of O2 and CO2 (between alveolar capillaries and capillary beds in other tissues)

34

Abnormal external respiration is dangerous. What are the two conditions that can be caused by this?

Hypoxia - low tissue oxygen levels

Anoxia - complete lack of oxygen

35

This is the physical movement of air in and out of the respiratory tract.

Pulmonary ventilation

36

The movement of air is what?

Atmospheric pressure

37

The aspect of air has several important physiological effects.

The weight of air

38

Boyles law defines?

The relationship between gas pressure and volume

39

What is the formula for Boyles law?

P=1/V

40

In a contained gas, external pressure forces molecules to do what?

move closer together

41

Air flows from an area of ______ pressure to an area of _______ pressure.

higher

lower

42

A respiratory cycle consist of?

an inspiration

an expiration

43

Pulmonary ventilation cause volume changes that create changes in the what?

Pressure

44

How does the volume of the thoracic cavity change?

with expansion or contraction of diaphragm or rib cage

45

This is an indicator of expandability.

Compliance

46

Low compliance requires _______ force.

greater

47

High compliance requires ______ force.

Less

48

What are three factors that affect compliance?

Connective tissue structure of the lungs

Level of surfactant production

Mobility of the thoracic cage

49

True or False:

Pressure changes during inhalation and exhalation can be measured inside or outside the lungs.

True

50

What is normal atmospheric pressure?

1 atm = 760 mm Hg

51

The intrapulmonary pressure is relative to ________ pressure.

atmospheric pressure

52

True or false:

In relaxed breathing, the difference between atmospheric pressure and intrapulmonary pressure is large.

False. its small

53

This is the maximum straining, a dangerous activity, can increase range and is known as what?

Maximum Intrapulmonary Pressure

54

This is the pressure in the space between parietal and visceral pleura and remains below atmospheric pressure throughout respiratory cycle.

The intrapleural pressure

55

These are cyclical changes in the intrapleural pressure operate the respiratory pump.

The respiratory cycle

56

Define tidal volume.

Amount of air moved in and out of lungs in a single respiratory cycle

57

When an injury to the chest wall allows air into the pleural cavity.

Pneumothorax

58

This is known as a collapsed lung and is the result of the pneumothorax.

Atelectasis

59

What are the most important muscle in the RS?

The diaphragm

External intercostal muscles of the rib

Accessory respiratory muscles

60

True or False:

Inhalation is always active.

True

61

True or False

Exhalation is always passive.

False

it can be active or passive

62

What role does the diaphragm play?

contraction draws air into the lungs

75% of normal air movement

63

What role does the external intercostal muscles play?

Assist inhalation

25% of normal air movement

64

What are the accessory muscles that assist in elevating the ribs?

Sternocleidomastoid

Serratus anterior

Pectoralis minor

Scalene muscles

65

What are the muscles used in exhalation?

Internal intercostals - depress the ribs

Abdominal muscles - compress the abdomen and force diaphragm upward

66

True or false:

Respiratory movements are classified by pattern of muscle activity in quiet breathing and forced breathing.

True

67

This involves active inhalation and passive exhalation.

Quiet breathing (eupnea)

68

Diaphragmatic breathing or deep breathing is dominated by what?

The diaphragm

69

Costal breathing or shallow breathing is dominated by what?

Rib cage movements

70

This is when inhalation muscles relax.

Elastic rebound

71

This involves active inhalation and exhalation, assisted by accessory muscles and maximum levels occur in exhaustion.

Forced breathing (hyperpnea)