An Introduction to Biology/ An Introduction to Evolution

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Biology
Chapters 1, 23
Biology 1406 Summer I Dr. Kirk Test 1
updated 7 years ago by kathy_holleman
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College: First year
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1

The simplest structure shared among all living organisms is the?

cell

2

Which of the following is likely NOT a common feature shared among all living organisms?

All living organisms are composed of similar structures.

3

All living organisms respond and adjust to their environments. The process through which this occurs is called?

adaptation

4

The process by which organisms maintain a stable internal environment in the face of a fluctuating external environment is called

homeostasis

5

Polypeptides (proteins) are composed of amino acids as ____________are composed of DNA.

genes

6

We maintain a fairly constant body temperature despite exposures to different seasons or external temperatures. This is achieved through our capacity to?

A)adapt to changing environments
B)regulate body temperature
C)maintain homeostasis

7

All of the chemical reactions used to break down nutrients and build up components within the body are collectively known as?

metabolism

8

Which level of organization includes all other?

population

9

Which level of organization is required for all others to form?

cell

10

When cells associate with each other they form?

tissues

11

When communities of organisms interact with their physical environment they form a(n)

ecosystem

12

Which of the following is LEAST likely required for the digestion of a meal?

populations

13

Which is the simplest of all levels of organization?

atom

14

Which level of organization reflects an individual composed of multiple organ system?

organism

15

Which of the following are components of molecules?

atoms

16

Many people at a wedding ceremony represent which level of organization?

population

17

A flower on a plant represents which level of organization?

organ

18

The phenomenon through which populations organisms change over several generations is termed?

biological evolution

19

Changes in _________represent the predominant cause for biological evolution.

genetic makeup

20

A variety of finch species within the Hawaiian Islands have acquired different types of beaks needed for utilizing specific food resources. The process by which these different species of finches came about is likely to have involved?

both natural selection and evolution evolution

21

Which of the following is True of a genetic mutation?

It generally produces a change in the DNA sequence of a gene.

22

New species evolve from pre-existing species by the accumulation of

genetic mutations

23

Evolutionary change

A)occurs through the modification of characteristics in a preexisting population
B)may involve vertical descent with mutation
C)may involve horizontal gene transfer

24

In the process of biological evolution, new species may evolve through exchange of genes from one species to another. This process is called?

horizontal gene transfer

25

The grouping of classification of species is termed

taxonomy

26

When grouping organisms, which classification is most general for a particular type of organism?

Kingdom

27

Which Kingdom of organisms is most noted for its ability to carry out photosynthesis?

Plantae

28

Biologists use nomenclature or the binomial to provide each species with a unique scientific name. Our species is called Homo sapiens. The first word refers to which taxonomical grouping?

Genus

29

When considering nomenclature for scientific names, what is the difference between the two primates, Homo sapiens and Homo erectus?

They are animals of a different species.

30

Which of the following is generally more complex than the others?

Eukarya

31

The complete genetic composition of an organism is called its

genome

32

Which is responsible for encoding the proteins found in a cell?

genome

33

If a scientist were studying the interaction of different proteins in the regulation of insulin secretion from a pancreatic cell, he or she would by studying

both proteomics and cell biology

34

An explanation for a biological process that is substantiated by a large body of evidence is called a?

theory

35

Collecting data without a specific hypothesis in mind is called?

discovery-based science

36

This question refers to the 5-stage process of hypothesis testing. What is the appropriate order of the stages when generating and testing a hypothesis?

1)Observations are made regarding a natural phenomenon
2)The observations lead to a hypothesis that tries to explain the phenomenon. A useful hypothesis is one that is testable because it makes specific predictions.
3)Experimentation is conducted to determine if the predictions are correct.
4)The data from the experiment is analyzed.
5)The hypothesis is accepted or rejected.

37

Which of the following could be classified as a "transitional form" fossil?

Hyracotherium, the first fossil of a horse that was found 55 mya.

38

According to Thomas Malthus, food supplies tend to increase arithmetically while populations tends to increase exponentially, which means that populations will out grow their foold supply.

True

39

Did Darwin develop his theory of evolution through experimentation of observation or other methods?

Observation

40

The result of natural selection of data.

adaptation

41

How did Thomas Malthus's ideas, about human population, affect Darwin's ideas on natural selection?

Malthus theorized that only a fraction of any human population will survive and reproduce. Darwin's observations during his voyage on the Beagle, suported Malthus' theory.

42

Some major changes that occurred in horse body size, foot anatomy and tooth morphology are hypothesized to be due to natural selection because of ...

changes in global climates which resulted in changing environments from forest to grasslands.

43

The island fox, Urocyon Littoralis, is only found on the Channel Island off the coast of California. This species in not found on the mainland where the gray fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, lives. This species would be considered to be

endemic

44

When Darwin observed several species of finches on the Galapagos Island had unique beak characteristics, he compared them with finch beaks on the mainland. Which of the following studies use geographic distribution of extinct and living species to determine pattern of evolution?

Biogeography

45

Cacti in the deserts of southwestern North America and some euphorbs of the deserts of Africa, have barrel-shape stems, short-lived leaves,and spines, yet these two types of plants are from different evolutionary lineages. This is an example of

convergent evolution

46

Selective breeding results from designed to modify traits in domesticated species.

True

47

English ivy (Hedera helix)and wintercreeper(Euonymus fortunei) both have aerial rootlets that allow them to climb up and stick to bark on trees. As you can tell from their scientific name these plants are not closely related, but yet they have both evolved similar morphological structures used for the same purpose. What type of evolution is this?

Convergent

48

The underlying phenomenon that makes selective breeding or artificial selection possible is genetic variation. It is possible to have phenotypic variation in natural populations because of.

differences in alleles for a specific trait

49

Which of the following pairs are NOT homologous?

the wings of a insect and the wing of chichen

50

When observing the skeleton of a snake, you see the remains of hip and hind leg bones associated with four legged animals. These bones are called...

vestigial structures

51

In humans, structures that show developmental homology include

temporary gill slits and bony tail

52

When humans are developing, in utero, they have characteristics. Which type of homology does this typify?

Developmental

53

Molecular homologies indicate that living species evolved from a common ancestor or interrelated group of common ancestors.

True

54

If two genes are homologous, then it can be said that they are

derived from the same ancestral gene.

55

Genes encoding the blood proteins myoglobin and hemoglobin are derived from a common gene ancestor. These proteins both occur in humans. The genes for myoglobin and hemoglobin are

paralogs

56

Gene families are created when

genes duplicate.

57

The bacterium Bacillus tumefaciens has been harnessed in biotechnology because it can insert a gene from one species of plant into another. This can also occur in nature and is referred to as

horizontal gene transfer

58

Which of the following mechanisms may be responsible for the occurrence of exon shuffling?

both nonhomologous recombination and transposable elements