Biology Lecture 1306 Exam Final (Part 2 of 4)

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1

Which of the following is true of the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure?

Proteins can easily move laterally through membranes.

2

Aquaporin allows water molecules to move very rapidly across a plasma membrane. What would be the best definition of this process?

Facilitated diffusion using a channel

3

The hormone insulin is a protein produced in the pancreas and then secreted into the blood stream after a meal to increase glucose uptake by tissues. Which of the following mechanisms would be used to secrete insulin from the pancreas?

Exocytosis

4

What is the major lipid found in membranes?

phospholipids

5

Scientists unearth a Wooly Mammoth from the Siberian Ice Sheath and discover that a eukaryotic "amoeba"-like cell is still alive. Which component of the cell membrane might contribute to maintaining the fluidity of plasma membranes under freezing conditions?

high levels of unsaturated fatty acyl tails within the lipid bilayer

6

When phospholipids are mixed together in an aqueous environment, a membrane bilayer will form spontaneously. In what type of environment would a phospholipid bilayer not form spontaneously?

a hydrophobic solvent

7

What are the two major components of cell membranes?

phospholipids and proteins

8

Glycosylated proteins and lipids within the plasma membrane are important for

cell recognition and protection

9

Which membrane component is most important for allowing large, charged molecules to pass through the membrane?

transmembrane proteins

10

Placing celery sticks in fresh water will make them more turgid and harder. This is because

the celery is hypertonic to fresh water

11

Which molecule would you predict moves through a lipid bilayer most rapidly?

C4H10

12

Animal cells are permeable to water and urea but NOT to sucrose. The inside of a cell contains 1 M sucrose and 1 M urea and the outside 1 M sucrose and 2 M urea. The solution inside with respect to outside the cell is

hypotonic

13

Water diffuses through certain organs such as the kidneys and bladder much faster than would occur by passive diffusion through a lipid bilayer alone. What accounts for this more rapid rate of water transport in these organs?

Presence of aquaporin channels for facilitated diffusion of water.

14

Passive diffusion

is a spontaneous process.

15

The movement of sucrose and H+ into the cell by the same membrane protein reflects the actions of what type of transporter?

symporter

16

________ bind two or more ions or molecules and transport them in opposite directions across a membrane.

Antiporters

17

The process that most involves the selective uptake of a specific cargo molecule into the cell through receptor binding and aggregation is

receptor-mediated endocytosis.

18

Plant cell membranes contain cholesterol.

T or F

False

19

Osmosis describes the movement of water from an area of high to low solute concentration.

T or F

False

20

Water held behind a dam would best reflect ______.

potential energy

21

An autotroph captures energy from other sources and does not actually produce energy because ____.

energy cannot be created or destroyed.

22

The amount of available energy that can be used to do work is called

free energy

23

A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described as

endergonic

24

In ALL exergonic reactions, ___.

the reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy.

25

How does an enzyme work to catalyze a reaction?

It lowers the activation energy of a reaction

26

Altering the three-dimensional structure of an enzyme might

prevent the substrate from binding the enzyme's active site.

27

How can a living cell increase the rate of a chemical reaction?

By using a catalyst

28

A bowl of sugar water is very stable. But if you feed it to cells it is rapidly broken down into carbon dioxide and water. What is the best explanation for this observation?

Enzymes in the cell catalyze the breakdown of glucose.

29

In photosynthesis, carbon dioxide gas is reduced and combined to form glucose. This is an example of...

anabolism

30

Once ATP donates its phosphate to a coupled reaction it becomes ADP. The ADP can be converted back to ATP in a(an) ____ reaction.

endergonic

31

In a catabolic reaction, electrons from food are...

removed by oxidation and stored in NADH

32

The process of breaking glycogen down to glucose is an example of: ____.

catabolism

33

Your liver produces 90% of the cholesterol found in your body. When cholesterol levels get too high, the first enzyme in the pathway of cholesterol synthesis is inhibited. This is an example of:

negative feedback

34

The primary complexes for protein synthesis and degradation in eukaryotes are _____ and _____ respectively.

ribosomes and proteasomes

35

Enzymes are consumed in chemical reactions and must therefore be replenished.

T or F

False

36

Temperature, pH, and ionic concentrations each play an important role in the proper functioning of enzymes.

T or F

True

37

Noncompetitive inhibitors bind the active site of an enzyme, reducing its activity and the subsequent formation of product.

T or F

False

38

Metabolism refers to only those reactions that release energy.

T or F

False

39

Autophagy is an important process that removes worn-out organelles, recycles components, then release them into the cytosol.

T or F

True

40

The equation, C6H12O6 + 6O2 →6CO2 + 6H2O (ATP + Heat), describes which of the following processes?

cell respiration

41

Which of the following are the final by-products of glucose oxidation during aerobic cell respiration?

ATP, heat, and carbon dioxide

42

Which of the following processes will occur in the presence or absence of oxygen?

Glycolysis

43

Where does glycolysis takes place?

Cytosol

44

Which occurs only in anaerobic metabolism of glucose?

lactate fermentation

45

Which of the following are produced during the citric acid cycle?

ATP, NADH, and FADH2

46

Which of the following statements is true?

The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondria matrix.

47

Cellular respiration produces the most energy in the form of ATP from which of the following?

oxidative phosphorylation

48

Which of the following statements is TRUE of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Both use glycolysis to oxidize glucose to pyruvate and both produce NADH as high-energy intermediates.

49

Where are the protein complexes associated with the electron transport chain located?

mitochondrial inner membrane

50

During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into

pyruvate

51

The ATP made during glycolysis is generated by

substrate-level phosphorylation

52

If you measure the air a person inhales you observe that the concentrations ______ in the air they exhale.

of O2 falls and CO2 rises

53

Energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?

mitochondrial intermembrane space

54

Which of the following do yeast produce during fermentation?

ethanol

55

The electron transport chain consists of a series of redox reactions in which electrons are transferred to oxygen as the final electron acceptor.

T or F

True

56

In prokaryotic cells, the electron transport system occurs in the mitochondria.

T or F

False

57

Fermentation is a more efficient form of energy production than aerobic respiration.

T or F

False

58

If oxygen is present, pyruvate will be converted to acetyl CoA in the mitochondrial matrix.

T or F

True

59

The aerobic breakdown of glucose yields 34 to 38 ATP, while the anaerobic breakdown of glucose yields 20 ATP.

T or F

False

60

The ultimate source of energy for photosynthetic reactions in a plant is ____.

the sun

61

The organisms that most specifically utilize light energy to make organic molecules from inorganic molecules

photoautotrophs

62

In the reaction, 6CO2 + 6H2O →C6H12O6 + 6O2, which side should energy be placed on?

The left side, this is an endergonic reaction

63

The equation, 6CO2 + 6H2O →C6H12O6 + 6O2, describes which of the following processes?

photosynthesis

64

In which organelle of the plant does photosynthesis takes place?

chloroplast

65

The main structure for gas exchange in plants is called the

stomata

66

A new flower species has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be blue-green. What wavelengths of visible light does this pigment reflect?

green and blue

67

The pigment responsible for the red-yellow coloration seen in leaves during the color change in autumn is

carotenoid

68

NADPH is produced by

light reactions alone

69

Which of the following represents a reactant in the light reaction of photosynthesis?

H2O

70

What is the main role of the pigment molecules within the antenna or light-harvesting complex?

Absorb photons and transfer light energy to the reaction center chlorophyll

71

Which portion of the photosynthetic apparatus absorbs light?

both photosystem I and photosystem II

72

Where does the Calvin cycle occur?

chloroplast stroma

73

Both ATP and NADPH are required for

the Calvin cycle only

74

Molecules that are required for the Calvin cycle include: Check all that apply.

CO2.
NADPH.
rubisco. ATP.

75

Products of the Calvin cycle include: Check all that apply.

NADP+

Pi

ADP

glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

76

The rate of photosynthesis is much greater in green light than red light

T or F

False

77

Harnessing light and splitting water occurs in both photosystem I and II

T or F

False

78

In hot and arid environments, plants that maximize photorespiration produce the most sugars.

T or F

False

79

If a C3 plant that normally closes its stomata during hot, dry conditions were triggered to open them instead, the most likely outcome would be that

water leaves the leaf, decreasing the rate of photosynthesis

80

In the reaction, 6CO2 + 6H2O →C6H12O6 + 6O2, carbon dioxide is being ____.

reduced

81

The purpose of the light reactions is to produce ____.

NADPH and ATP

82

When NADP+ _____ electrons in the light reactions, it is ______, forming NADPH.

accepts, reduced

83

Plants require a lot of water for transpiration, metabolism, and photosynthesis. How is water used in photosynthesis?

as an electron donor

84

A plant performing photosynthesis will produce ____ and consume _____.

oxygen, carbon dioxide

85

A C4 plant minimizes photorespiration by

having the light reactions and carbon reactions occur in different cells, so oxygen does not come into contact with rubisco

86

Energy is carried from the light reactions to the Calvin cycle by __________.

ATP

87

Cellular membranes are

Fluid

88

The membrane component(s) primarily responsible for the structure and function of plasma membranes is/are

phospholipids

89

Which molecule passes through a lipid bilayer most readily?

carbon dioxide

90

The pressure required to stop water from moving across the membrane by osmosis is called

osmotic pressure

91

Sodium concentrations are higher outside and glucose concentrations are higher inside the cell. Using the same membrane protein for Na+ and glucose transport, what is it called when a Na+ electrochemical gradient is used to drive glucose transport into the cell against its concentration gradient?

secondary active transport

92

Food is oxidized in catabolic reactions

removed by oxidation and stored in NADH