Chapter 24 Nutrition and Metabolism

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Nutrition and Metabolism
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1

Which of the pancreatic enzyme is responsible for hydrolysis of proteins?
A. Amylase
B. Kinase
C. Lipase
D. Trypsin

D. Trypsin

2

The various hydrolytic enzymes are highly specific in their action

True

3

The enzyme amylase breaks down the starch into..
A. Lactose
B. Fructose
C. Maltose
D. Sucrose

C. Maltose

4

In your experiment for protein digestion you used BAPNA, the color of media changed to..
A. Brown
B. Yellow
C. White
D. Blue

B. Yellow

5

Pancreatin can digest which of the following nutrient?
A. Proteins
B. Carbohydrates
C. Nucleic Acids
D. Fats
E. All of them

E. All of them

6

What is an enzyme?

A protein that acts as a biological catalyst to speed up a chemical reaction

7

Trypsin hydrolyses protein to..
A. Peptides
B. Amino Acids
C. Fatty Acids
D. Maltose

A. Peptides

8

What is the importance of Krebs Cycle?

It is a source of building materials for anabolic reactions

9

How many ATP is produced from catabolism of one molecule of glucose?

2

10

Electron Chain Transport (ETC) happens where?

Mitochondria

11

Glycolysis and Fermentation happens where?

Cytoplasm

12

Sugar Activation

Glycolysis

13

Sugar Cleavage

Krebs Cycle

14

Sugar Activation

ETC

15

What is the true function of molecular oxygen acquired by the lungs?
A. O2 catalyzes the breaking of bonds in the glucose molecule
B. O2 catalyzes the synthesis of ATP
C. O2 serves as the final electron acceptor for the oxidation of food molecules
D. O2 drives energy dependent processes in our cells.

C. O2 serves as the final electron acceptor for the oxidation of food molecules

16

Which of the following nutrients can enter the Krebs Cycle?
A. Glucose
B. Amino Acids
C. Pyruvic Acid
D. Both B and C

C. Pyruvic Acid

17

The process whereby excess glucose is stored in cells is called...
A. Glycogenesis
B. Glycogenolysis
C. Gluconeogenesis
D. Glycolysis

A. Glycogenesis

18

For a marathon runner, what benefit is there to eating a diet of 75% carbohydrates and reducing the workout for 3 to 4 days before competition?
A. Muscle cells will increase the total amount of protein
B. The extra carbohydrates are stored as fat
C. The muscle cells will store higher than normal levels of glycogen
D. the muscle cells will store higher than normal amounts of ATP

C. The muscle cells will store higher than normal levels of glycogen

19

Why isn't it sufficient to reduce only dietary fat intake to prevent new fatty deposits from forming in the body?
A. Because ketone bodies form when fat intake is insufficient.
B. Acetyl CoA, an intermediate in glucose metabolism, is also starting point for fatty acid synthesis
C. Because muscle gets converted to fat
D. Because cholesterol gets converted to fat.

B. Acetyl CoA, an intermediate in glucose metabolism, is also starting point for fatty acid synthesis

20

What is the primary process by which insulin is released after ingesting a meal?
A. Insulin is secreted in direct response to blood glucose.
B. The brain sends a hormone to the pancreas to stimulate insulin release
C. Insulin release is constant.
D. the vagus stimulates the pancreas

A. Insulin is secreted in direct response to blood glucose.

21

What is the primary objective during the post absorptive state?
A. To collect and remove glucose from the blood and deposit it in cells
B. To convert fat to protein
C. To maintain blood glucose at around 70-110 mg/100ml blood
D. To elevate blood glucose to the highest possible level to ensure adequate delivery to the brain

C. To maintain blood glucose at around 70-110 mg/100ml blood

22

Where are the two primary sources of glucose reserve during the post absorptive state?
A. Greater Omentum and Subcutaneous Layer
B. Stomach and Intestine
C. Liver and Skeletal Muscle
D. Brain and Skin

C. Liver and Skeletal Muscle

23

Hyperglycemic hormones include glucagon and...
A. Insulin
B. Epinephrine
C. GIP
D. Aldosterone

B. Epinephrine

24

The major metabolic function for most vitamins is that they assist enzymes by serving as...
A. Sources of ATP
B. Active Sites
C. Substrates
D. Coenzymes

D. Coenzymes

25

Why are high density lipoproteins (HDLs) considered "good"?
A. The cholesterol transported by HDLs is destined for destruction.
B. HDLs transport cholesterol to the peripheral tissues for biosynthesis of steroids
C. HDLs transport cholesterol to adipose tissue
D. HDLs are actually considered "bad" cholesterol

A. The cholesterol transported by HDLs is destined for destruction.

26

The majority of the for we ingest is ultimately..
A. Converted to fat
B. Burned to produced oxygen
C. Used to synthesize ATP
D. Stored int the stomach

C. Used to synthesize ATP

27

Which nutrient the body cannot synthesize rapidly enough to be useful
A. Regulatory
B. Essential
C. Endemic
D. Caloric

B. Essential

28

It is possible for vegetarians to obtain complete proteins by combining..
A. Bread and Vitamins
B. Fats and Pasta
C. Legumes and Cereal Grains
D. Milk and Sugar

C. Legumes and Cereal Grains

29

In general metabolic terms, food digestions is a form of ________, while building new molecules is a form of _____
A. Metabolism; Cellular Respiration
B. Anabolism; Catabolism
C. Cellular Respiration; Metabolism
D. Catabolism; Anabolism

D. Catabolism; Anabolism

30

Which indicator did you use to test for the presence of starch?
A. IKI(Iodine)
B. Benedict's Solution
C. Litmus
D. HCL

A. IKI(Iodine)

31

Which indicator did you use to test for the presence of reducing sugar such as glucose?
A. IKI(Iodine)
B. Benedict's Solution
C. Litmus
D. HCL

B. Benedict's Solution

32

The process that produces over 90% of the ATP used by our cells is
A. Glycolysis
B. The TCA cycle
C. Electron Transport Chain
D. Both A and B

C. Electron Transport Chain

33

Glucagon stimulates Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis

True

34

Gluconeogenesis protects against damaging effects of hypoglycemia

True

35

Breakdown of one molecule glucose gains how many ATP from Kreb's cycle

Two

36

A complete set of Amino Acids is necessary for protein synthesis

True

37

The sequence of reactions responsible for the breakdown of fatty acid molecules is
A. Beta-Oxidation
B. The TCA Cycle
C. Lipogenesis
D. Both B and C

A. Beta-Oxidation

38

Which of the following reactions would liberate the most energy?
A. Conversion of a molecule of sucrose to CO2 and H2O
B. Conversion of a molecule of ADP to ATP
C. Respiration of a molecule of glucose to lactic acid
D. Conversion of a molecule of glucose to carbon dioxide and water

A. Conversion of a molecule of sucrose to CO2 and H2O

39

The formation of glucose from non carbohydrate molecules such as fats and proteins is
A. Gluconeogenesis
B. Glycogenesis
C. Glycogenolysis
D. Glycolysis

A. Gluconeogenesis

40

The net gain of ATP from the complete metabolism (aerobic) of glucose is closest to
A. 2
B. 30
C. 36
D. 4
E. 24

C. 36

41

During aerobic respiration, electrons are passed down the electron transport chain, What is finally formed at the end of Electron Transport Chain besides ATP
A.O2
B. H2O
C. Glucose
D. NADH+H

B. H2O

42

Metabolic rate is relatively lower in...
A. Youth
B. Physical Exercise
C. Old Age
D. Fever

C. Old Age

43

Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
A. Glycogenolysis
B. Synthesis of Cholesterol
C. Detoxification of Alcohol and Drugs
D. Synthesis of Glucagon
E. Deamination of Amino Acids

D. Synthesis of Glucagons

44

Amino Acids are essential to the body on all of the following except..
A. Production of hormones
B. Production of antibodies and enzymes
C. Formation of structural proteins
D. As a source of quick energy

D. As a source of quick energy

45

A person has been on hunger strike for seven days. Compared to normal days he has:
A. Increased release of fatty acids from fats and might develop ketosis
B. Elevated glucose concentration in the blood
C. Increased plasma insulin concentration
D. Increased glycogen synthetase activity in the liver

A. Increased release of fatty acids from fats and might develop ketosis

46

When dietary protein is in excess, amino acids are oxidized for energy or may be converted into fat or storage

True

47

Which of the following yields the greatest caloric value per gram?
A. Fats
B. Proteins
C. Carbohydrates
D. All are equal in caloric value

A. Fats

48

Which of the following can be used to elevate the good glucose?
A. Glycogenolysis in the liver
B. Glycogenolysis in the skeletal muscle
C. Lipogenesis in the liver
D. Both A and B
E. All of these

D. Both A and B

49

Glucagon release is stimulated by which of the following?
A. Declining blood glucose
B. Rising Amino Acid Levels
C. Rising Fat in Blood
D. Both A and B
E. All of them

D. Both A and B

50

Which of the following is a type of lipoprotein
A. HDLs
B. LDLs
C. VLDLs
D. Chylomicrons
E. All of these

E. All of these

51

The breakdown of glucose to Pyruvic Acid is a _____ process
A. Anaerobic
B. Aerobic
C. Anabolic
D. Oxidative

A. Anaerobic

52

HDLs transport excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the live to be broken down and secreted into bile

True

53

The formation of glucose from glycogen

Glycogenolysis

54

Which of the following best defines cellular respiration?
A. Intake of CO2 and output of O2 by cells
B. Excretion of waste products
C. Inhalation of O2 and exhalation of CO2
D. Oxidation of substances by which energy is released in usable form to the cells

D. Oxidation of substances by which energy is released in usable form to the cells

55

Transamination is a chemical process by which..
A. Protein is synthesized
B. An amine group is transferred from an amino acid to a keto acid
C. An amine group is cleaved from the amino acid
D. Amino acids are broken down for energy

B. An amine group is transferred from an amino acid to a keto acid

56

Three days after the removal of the pancreas from an animal, the researcher finds a persistent increase in
A. Acetoacetic acid concentration in the blood
B. Urine volume
C. Blood glucose
D. All of the above

D. All of the above