Neuro Practice Exam 2

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1

Acetylcholine is the primary neurotransmitter at

The neuromuscular junction

The heart

They sympathetic pre-ganglionic neurons

Parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurons

2

The rate-limiting step in dopamine synthesis is

Tyrosine hydroxylase

3

The principal mechanism of inactivating catecholamines is

Re-uptake into the pre-synaptic neuron

4

Which neurotransmitter binds to Beta-adrenergic receptors?

norepinephrine

5

Melatonin synthesis is increased after eating

tryptophan

6

The major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain is

epinephrine

7

The NMDA receptor is involved in Long Term Potentiation (LTP) because

It is a channel for potassium, sodium, and calcium

8

Neuropeptides are

synthesized as large inactive precursor molecules

9

Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) is important for

Cortisol production

10

Gonadotrope cells in the anterior pituitary secrete

FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)

11

Which of the following nervous systems does the hypothalamus integrate with the brain:

Parasympathetic nervous system

sympathetic nervous system

the somatic nervous system

the enteric nervous system

12

Vasopressin is

Released from the hypothalamus in response to low blood volume

13

The primary post-ganglionic neurotransmitter for the sympathetic nervous system is

Norepinephrine

14

L-Dopa is rapidly converting to dopamine in dopaminergic neurons. Why is treating Parkinson's Disease with L-dopa not usually a successful therapy?

The dopaminergic neurons are dying

15

The periventricular zone of the hypothalamus regulates

the autonomic nervous system

16

Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system results in

accelerated heartbeat

inhibition of saliva secretion

increased release of epinephrine from adrenal galnd

inhibition of bladder contraction

release of glucose from the liver

17

The structure in the brain that acts as a relay station between input from peripheral organs and the hypothalamus is

nucleus of the solitary tract

18

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) can be useful for treating

Anxiety

Depression

Bulimia

Obesity

19

Leptin is produced from adipocyte cells. Leptin binds to receptors on neurons in the ____________, and these neurons in turn release_____________ in the paraventricular nucleus

arcurate nucleus, alphaMSH

20

After eating a large high-protein meal, which of the following factors will increase serotonin production in the brain

carbohydrates in your diet

21

Neuronal excitotoxicity is caused by the neurotransmitter___________, which enables the conductance of ____________ions.

Gluatamate, calcium

22

The hypothalamus maintains homeostasis. The hypothalamus is "informed" about changes in body temperature by receiving input from neurons:

in the cortex that change firing rate with temperature

23

Neurotransmitters that bind to metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors initiate a process called signal transduction. If binding of your neurotransmitter resulted in a rise of cellular calcium in the post-synaptic neuron, what G protein would have been involved in the signal transduction, and what second messenger would have elicited the calcium response?

G alpha s , cAMP

24

The enteric nervous system of the gut is regulated by

parasympathetic and sympathetic brach of the ANS

25

GABA is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Binding of GABA to it's post-synaptic receptor results in the hyperpolarization of the post-synaptic neuron. This hyperpolarization is caused by

Activation of inward Cl- ions

26

Experiments with rats using self-stimulation to discover reward pathways discovered that rats preferred electrical stimulation over actual food. This was most effective when the electrode was placed in

Dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area projecting to the forebrain

27

During hypervolemic thirst, vasopressin secretion is stimulated by

Angiotension II binding at the subfornical organ

28

The hypothalamus often generates a somatic motor (behavioral response) to maintain homeostasis. Which part of the hypothalamus controls this response?

lateral hypothalamus

29

Ghrelin is a neuropeptide released from cells in the stomach wall, which binds to neurons in the___________ which release NPY(Neuropeptide Y) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in the lateral hypothalamus to___________ feeding

arcurate, increase

30

The network of neurons that comprise the Diffuse Modulatory Systems of the brain originate from small subsets of neurons in the brainstem and expand to diverse areas of the brain. This structural organization allows:

coordinated response to physiologic stimuli from a broad range of brain regions

31

T/F

In paracrine signaling, neurotransmitters are released into the blood supply and bind receptors on target cells distant from the secreting cell

FALSE

32

T/F

The flight or fight response is triggered by the parasympathetic nervous system

FALSE