1) The nonspecific ascending pathways ________.
A) are evolutionarily newer than the specific pathways
B) receive inputs from a single type of sensory receptor
C) are involved in the emotional aspects of perception
D) are also called the lemniscal system
2) The suprachiasmatic nucleus is found in the ________.
3) Nuclei of cranial nerves V, VI, and VII are found in the ________.
4) The arbor vitae refers to ________.
A) cerebellar gray matter
B) cerebellar white matter
C) the pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum
D) flocculonodular nodes
5) The brain stem consists of the ________.
A) cerebrum, pons, midbrain, and medulla
B) midbrain, medulla, and pons
C) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain
D) midbrain only
6) The primary auditory cortex is located in the ________.
A) prefrontal lobe
B) frontal lobe
C) temporal lobe
D) parietal lobe
7) Spinocerebellar tracts ________.
A) terminate in the spinal cord
B) carry proprioceptive inputs to the cerebellum
C) give rise to conscious experience of perception
D) are found in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord
8) The spinal cord has gray matter on the ________.
A) outside, white matter on the inside, and a dorsal motor root
B) inside, white matter on the outside, and a ventral motor root
C) inside, white matter on the outside, and a dorsal motor root
D) outside, white matter on the inside, and a ventral motor root
9) The subarachnoid space lies between what two layers of meninges?
A) arachnoid and epidura
B) arachnoid and pia
C) arachnoid and dura
D) dura and epidura
10) The vital centers for the control of heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure are located in the
11) Cell bodies of the sensory neurons of the spinal nerves are located in ________.
A) the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord
B) the ventral root ganglia of the spinal cord
C) the thalamus
D) sympathetic ganglia
12) The fissure separating the cerebral hemispheres is the ________.
A) central fissure
B) longitudinal fissure
C) parieto-occipital fissure
D) lateral fissure
13) The limbic association area of the multimodal association areas provides our ________.
A) emotional impact
B) working memory
C) recall and personality
D) learning abilities
14) A shallow groove on the surface of the cortex is called a ________.
15) The cerebrospinal fluid ________.
A) is secreted by the arachnoid villi
B) enters the four ventricles after filling and circulating through the subarachnoid space
C) is secreted mostly by the neuroglia cells lining the brain ventricles
D) is formed mostly by the choroid plexuses and modified by ependymal cells
16) If the posterior portion of the neural tube failed to develop properly ________.
A) the spinal cord may be affected
B) the cranial nerves would not form
C) the hindbrain would not be present
D) the telencephalon would cease development
17) The central sulcus separates which lobes?
A) frontal from parietal
B) parietal from occipital
C) temporal from parietal
D) frontal from temporal
18) Neural tracts that convey life-saving information to the brain concerning burning pain would
A) anterior spinothalamic
C) lateral spinothalamic
D) posterior spinothalamic
19) Which of these would you not find in the cerebral cortex?
A) cell bodies
C) unmyelinated axons
D) fiber tracts
20) The hypothalamus ________.
A) is the thermostat of the body since it regulates temperature
B) is an important auditory and visual relay center
C) has the Pulvinar body as part of its structure
D) mediates sensations
21) The white matter of the spinal cord contains ________.
A) myelinated nerve fibers only
B) unmyelinated nerve fibers only
C) myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
D) soma that have both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers
22) A lateral tract in the spinal cord would be ________.
23) An individual accidentally transected the spinal cord between T1 and L1. This would result in
D) spinal shock only
24) Spastic paralysis suggests involvement of the ________.
A) upper motor neurons
B) lower motor neurons
C) spinal nerve roots
D) neuromotor junction
25) Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ________.
26) The frontal lobe is separated from the temporal lobe by the ________.
A) longitudinal fissure
B) lateral sulcus
C) central sulcus
D) cranial fossa
27) Brodmannʹs numbering refers to ________.
A) molecular weight of types of neurons
B) counts of neurons per fiber bundle
C) structurally distinct cortical areas
D) rates of neural division in embryogenesis
28) Two terms for the massive motor tracts serving voluntary movement are ________.
A) pyramidal and corticospinal
B) extrapyramidal and rubrospinal
C) segmental and nigrostriatal
D) supplementary and cerebellar-pontine
29) An individual who could trace a picture of a bicycle with his or her finger but could not
recognize it as a bicycle is most likely to have sustained damage to the ________.
A) calcarine cortex
B) primary visual area
C) visual association area
D) lateral geniculate body
30) Brocaʹs area ________.
A) corresponds to Brodmannʹs area 8
B) is usually found in the right hemisphere
C) serves the recognition of complex objects
D) is considered a motor speech area
31) The function of commissures is to connect ________.
A) adjacent areas of gray matter within a cerebral hemisphere
B) corresponding areas of the two hemispheres
C) areas of cortex with lower centers
D) pyramidal cells with corresponding cerebellar cells
32) The blood-brain barrier is effective against ________.
A) metabolic waste such as urea
B) nutrients such as glucose
33) Which of the following is not part of the basal nuclei?
B) lentiform nucleus
C) globus pallidus
D) substantia nigra
34) All of the following are structures of the limbic system except the ________.
B) cingulate gyrus
C) amygdaloid nucleus
D) caudate nucleus
35) Which of the following is not a midbrain structure?
A) third ventricle
B) cerebral peduncles
C) corpora quadrigemina
D) red nucleus
36) The process of linking new facts with old facts already stored in the memory bank is called
B) automatic memory
C) long-term memory
37) An electroencephalogram ________.
A) is a record of total body electrical activity
B) indicates a normal frequency range of 1-30 Hz
C) indicates an average amplitude of 20-100 V
D) can only detect abnormal electrical activity
38) The brain area that regulates activities that control the state of wakefulness or alertness of the
cerebral cortex is the ________.
B) reticular formation
D) limbic system
39) Which of the following would you not find in normal cerebrospinal fluid?
B) red blood cells
40) REM sleep is associated with ________.
A) decreased vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure
B) decreased activity of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex
C) temporary skeletal muscle inhibition except for the extrinsic eye muscles
D) decreased oxygen use, especially in the cerebral cortex
41) Mr. Hom was injured in an accident that completely severed his spinal cord at the level of T12.
You would expect to find all of the following except ________.
A) paralysis of the lower extremities
B) loss of sensation below the level of injury
C) slurred speech
D) perspiration in the affected area
42) Injury to the hypothalamus may result in all of the following except ________.
A) pathologic sleep
B) loss of body temperature control
C) production of excessive quantities of urine
D) loss of proprioception
43) White matter of the spinal cord ________.
A) is composed of myelinated fibers only
B) ascends to higher PNS centers
C) has afferent fibers carrying impulses from peripheral sensory receptors
D) contains the anterior and posterior spinocerebellar tracts
44) Which statement about aging is most accurate?
A) The brain reaches its maximum weight around the seventh decade of life.
B) Synaptic connections are too fixed to permit a great deal of learning after the age of 35.
C) Despite some neuronal loss, changing synaptic connections support additional learning
D) Learning throughout the adult and aging years is supported primarily by glial
45) Which association regarding the function and location of the cerebrum is most accurate?
46) Brain wave amplitude ________.
A) reflects the number of neurons firing synchronously
B) is an average of about 1 V
C) results from subtraction of delta waves from theta waves
D) is the measure of activity of specific individual neurons
47) Declarative memory is not stored in the ________.
D) mammillary body
48) Huntingtonʹs disease ________.
A) begins to appear at ages 10 to 15
B) has symptoms that are the opposite of Parkinsonʹs disease
C) usually subsides by ages 35 to 40
D) may be a result of a defective 26th chromosome
49) The corpus striatum plays a special role in ________.
A) face recognition
B) fact learning
C) spatial learning
D) skill learning
50) Storing information in long-term memory ________.
A) depends on the remaining capacity of long-term memory
B) is interfered with by emotional arousal
C) is facilitated by the release of norepinephrine
D) is always dependent on the formation of conscious impressions
51) Important nuclei of the indirect (multineural) system that receive impulses from the
equilibrium apparatus of the inner ear and help to maintain balance by varying muscle tone of
postural muscles are the ________.
A) red nuclei
B) vestibular nuclei
C) reticular nuclei
D) superior colliculi
52) Which of the following structures is probably not directly involved in memory?
D) prefrontal cortex
53) The area of the cortex that is responsible for sensations of the full bladder and the feeling that
your lungs will burst when you hold your breath too long is the ________.
A) olfactory cortex
B) gusatory cortex
C) vestibular cortex
D) visceral sensory area
54) Which statement about coma is true?
A) Coma is defined as total unresponsiveness to stimuli for a long period of time.
B) During coma, brain oxygen consumption resembles that of a waking state.
C) Coma is neurologically identical to syncope.
D) Coma is rarely caused by damage to brain stem structures.
55) Tremor at rest, shuffling gait, stooped posture, and expressionless face are characteristics of
A) Huntingtonʹs disease
B) Parkinsonʹs disease
C) cerebellar disease
D) spinal cord disease
56) Which is the mildest consequence of traumatic brain injury?
57) Declarative memory ________.
A) is the ability to learn specific information
B) is best remembered in the doing
C) is hard to unlearn when learned once
D) usually involves motor skills
58) Which of the following is/are involved with motor activity (either initiation or coordination)?
A) postcentral gyrus
B) gustatory cortex
C) red nuclei
D) Wernickeʹs area
59) Which statement is not true?
A) Sleep requirements decline from infancy to early adulthood, level off, then decline again
in old age.
B) Half of infant sleep is composed of REM sleep.
C) Ten-year-olds are in REM sleep about 1.5-2 hours per night.
D) Stage 4 sleep increases in old age.
60) Which statement about epilepsy is most accurate?
A) During seizures, sensory messages are processed normally but responses are blocked.
B) Petit mal epilepsy typically begins in adolescence and is often severely disabling.
C) Epilepsy is often genetically induced but also frequently caused by head trauma, stroke,
infection, and tumor.
D) The aura in grand mal epilepsy typically occurs as the patient regains consciousness.
61) White matter (myelinated fibers) is found in all of the following locations, with the exception
of the ________.
A) corpus callosum
B) cerebral cortex
C) corticospinal tracts
D) outer portion of the spinal cord
62) Second-order neurons of both the specific and nonspecific ascending pathways terminate in
A) spinal cord
D) somatosensory cortex
63) Loss of ability to perform skilled motor activities such as piano playing, with no paralysis or
weakness in specific muscles, might suggest damage to the ________.
A) spinal cord
B) premotor cortex
C) primary motor cortex
D) rubrospinal tracts
64) ________ waves are not normal for awake adults but are common for children.