Sociology: Chapters 6-10
people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called social group
people who share a culture and a territory
Hunting and Gathering Society
a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival
simplest form of society
a tribe's healing specialist who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease
a society based on the pasturing of animals
Horticultural (gardening society)
cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools
the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies
the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural studies
a society based on large-scale agriculture
the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power
a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels
Postindustrial (information) society
a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing
a society whose economy increasingly centers on modifying genetics to produce food, medicine, and materials
genetic structures-both plant and animal
individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together
people, objects, and events that have similar characteristics and are classified together
a small group characterized by intimate, longterm, face-to-face association and cooperation
compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity
a group toward one feels loyalty
a group toward one feels antagonism
a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves
the social ties radiating outward from the self that people link together
"small world phenomenon"-how extensive the connections are among social networks
the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals
a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members
Solomon Ash and group dynamics
individuals are willing to compromise their beliefs to avoid the discomfort of being different from others in a group
a group of "stooges" collaborated to give wrong answers, examined the topic conformity with peers
What is another name for instrumental group leader?
Members of which kind of group would be most likely to get help if one of the group members seemed to be in trouble?
A leader who asks for everyones input?
Small groups stand as a buffer between the individual and larger society, thereby preventing anomie
Georg Simmel would agree with which of the following statements?
Triads are inherently unstable
people participating in groupthink limit additional points of view, resulting in a narrow view of the issue
Primary and secondary social groups differ according to?
their 'members' degree of personal concern for one another
Why is a triad more stable than a dyad?
a triad can survive if members are struggling, since the other member can mediate
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between social inequality and agricultural societies?
as societies become more agricultural, inequality became a fundamental feature of life
Raul lives in a society whose economy is centered on applying and altering genetic structures to produce food, medicine, and materials.
Where inequality became fundamental a feature of life...
As a result of the domestication revolution...
groups were able to farm a steady food supply, to increase in size, to develop a division of labor, and to stimiluate trade
The groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves...
The dominating nature of our huge society has created a bewildering sense of us not belonging that is referred to as...
anomie; a termed coined by Emile Durkheim
College students over age 35 are an example of a...
Stanley Milgram conducted the original...
the "small world phenomenon" research
The attitudes and thinking patterns that result from identification with in-groups can lead to...
discrimination and prejudice
What marked the beginning of the third social revolution?
using the steam engine to run machinery
Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between inequality and industrial revolution?
Industrialization brought am abundance of goods, and as workers won basic rights, the pattern of inequality was reversed
what kind of society is the simplest form?
hunting and gathering
In a group of six people...
fifteen relationships are possible
the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons
a group of three people
the alignment of some members of a group against others
the economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition
try to keep a group moving towards its goals
focus on creating harmony and raising group morale
lead by consensus
using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs
Traditional society (Horticultural, Agricultural)
arrangements will continue indefinitely
production takes place in home or in fields
relationships in production are long-term
Nontraditional society (Industrial, Postindustrial)
production takes place in a centralized location
arrangements are evaluated periodically
relationships in production are short-term
based on contracts
Rationalization of society
a widespread acceptance of rationality and social organizations that are built largely around this idea
attributed rationalization to capitalism
linked the break with tradition and the rationalization of society to protestantism
a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications and records
Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between bureaucracy and alienation?
bureaucracy can foster feelings of alienation as one becomes part of a big system
In a bureaucracy...
assignments flow upward from level to level, and accountability flows downward
Gary has worked for the same company for 10 years. He hates his job, but sees no better option for employment. He does as little as possible at work and has a bad attitude towards his superiors and clients. Gary is an example of...
an alienated bureaucrat
individuals who stand firmly behind a groups goals, who actively promote the group, and who are committed to maintaining the organization
is the rule of the many by a few
What is the basis for organization of all voluntary associations?
The iron law of oligarchy refers to how organizations...
come to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating life
Why is excluding women and minorities from consideration for promotion a self-defeating choice for a business?
the business decreases its talent pool by excluding whole groups
What is an example of the hidden corporate culture?
a female employee's boss does not expect her to succeed, which is why she fails
small groups of workers who try to develop solutions to problems in the workplace, as a step in humanizing the work setting
using computers for personal purposes
Why did Japan's corporations refuse to layoff workers in the 1990's?
they saw layoffs as a sign of disloyalty to workers
What kind of society is considered nontraditional, or rational?
A CEO retires from a corporation. Before he is gone, the next candidate has been primed for the position. This is an example of...
impersonality and replaceability in a bureaucracy
Who blamed the change on capitalism...
Who shared his observations about American participation in voluntary organizations in the report Democracy in America?
Alexis de Tocqueville
The main purpose of work teams is to...
is a secondary group designed to achieve specific objectives
the values, norms, and other orientation that characterize corporate work settings