Sociology: Chapters 6-10

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1

Group

people who have something in common and who believe that what they have in common is significant; also called social group

2

Society

people who share a culture and a territory

3

Hunting and Gathering Society

a human group that depends on hunting and gathering for its survival

simplest form of society

4

Shaman

a tribe's healing specialist who attempts to control the spirits thought to cause a disease

5

Pastoral society

a society based on the pasturing of animals

6

Horticultural (gardening society)

cultivation of plants by the use of hand tools

7

Domestication revolution

the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies

8

Agricultural revolution

the second social revolution, based on the invention of the plow, which led to agricultural studies

9

Agricultural society

a society based on large-scale agriculture

10

Industrial Revolution

the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animal and human power

11

Industrial society

a society based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels

12

Postindustrial (information) society

a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing

13

Biotech society

a society whose economy increasingly centers on modifying genetics to produce food, medicine, and materials

genetic structures-both plant and animal

14

Aggregate

individuals who temporarily share the same physical space but do not see themselves as belonging together

15

Category

people, objects, and events that have similar characteristics and are classified together

16

Primary group

a small group characterized by intimate, longterm, face-to-face association and cooperation

17

Secondary group

compared with a primary group, a larger, relatively temporary, more anonymous, formal, and impersonal group based on some interest or activity

18

in-group

a group toward one feels loyalty

19

out-group

a group toward one feels antagonism

20

Reference group

a group whose standards we refer to as we evaluate ourselves

21

Social network

the social ties radiating outward from the self that people link together

22

Stanley Milgram

"small world phenomenon"-how extensive the connections are among social networks

23

Group dynamics

the ways in which individuals affect groups and the ways in which groups influence individuals

24

Small group

a group small enough for everyone to interact directly with all the other members

25

Solomon Ash and group dynamics

individuals are willing to compromise their beliefs to avoid the discomfort of being different from others in a group

a group of "stooges" collaborated to give wrong answers, examined the topic conformity with peers

26

What is another name for instrumental group leader?

task-oriented leader

27

Members of which kind of group would be most likely to get help if one of the group members seemed to be in trouble?

Dyad

28

A leader who asks for everyones input?

Democratic leader

29

Emile Durkheim

Small groups stand as a buffer between the individual and larger society, thereby preventing anomie

30

Georg Simmel would agree with which of the following statements?

Triads are inherently unstable

31

Irving Janis

people participating in groupthink limit additional points of view, resulting in a narrow view of the issue

32

Primary and secondary social groups differ according to?

their 'members' degree of personal concern for one another

33

Why is a triad more stable than a dyad?

a triad can survive if members are struggling, since the other member can mediate

34

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between social inequality and agricultural societies?

as societies become more agricultural, inequality became a fundamental feature of life

35

Raul lives in a society whose economy is centered on applying and altering genetic structures to produce food, medicine, and materials.

biotech society

36

Where inequality became fundamental a feature of life...

agricultural society

37

As a result of the domestication revolution...

groups were able to farm a steady food supply, to increase in size, to develop a division of labor, and to stimiluate trade

38

The groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves...

reference groups

39

The dominating nature of our huge society has created a bewildering sense of us not belonging that is referred to as...

anomie; a termed coined by Emile Durkheim

40

College students over age 35 are an example of a...

category

41

Stanley Milgram conducted the original...

the "small world phenomenon" research

42

The attitudes and thinking patterns that result from identification with in-groups can lead to...

discrimination and prejudice

43

What marked the beginning of the third social revolution?

using the steam engine to run machinery

44

Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between inequality and industrial revolution?

Industrialization brought am abundance of goods, and as workers won basic rights, the pattern of inequality was reversed

45

what kind of society is the simplest form?

hunting and gathering

46

In a group of six people...

fifteen relationships are possible

47

dyad

the smallest possible group, consisting of two persons

48

triad

a group of three people

49

coalition

the alignment of some members of a group against others

50

Capitalism

the economic system characterized by private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit, and market competition

51

Instrumental leader

try to keep a group moving towards its goals

52

Expressive leader

focus on creating harmony and raising group morale

53

Authoritarian leader

give orders

54

Democratic leader

lead by consensus

55

Laissez-faire leader

highly permissive

56

Rationality

using rules, efficiency, and practical results to determine human affairs

57

Traditional society (Horticultural, Agricultural)

arrangements will continue indefinitely

production takes place in home or in fields

relationships in production are long-term

58

Nontraditional society (Industrial, Postindustrial)

production takes place in a centralized location

arrangements are evaluated periodically

relationships in production are short-term

based on contracts

59

Rationalization of society

a widespread acceptance of rationality and social organizations that are built largely around this idea

60

Karl Marx

attributed rationalization to capitalism

61

Max Weber

linked the break with tradition and the rationalization of society to protestantism

62

Bureaucracy

a formal organization with a hierarchy of authority and a clear division of labor; emphasis on impersonality of positions and written rules, communications and records

63

Which of the following statements best explains the relationship between bureaucracy and alienation?

bureaucracy can foster feelings of alienation as one becomes part of a big system

64

In a bureaucracy...

assignments flow upward from level to level, and accountability flows downward

65

Gary has worked for the same company for 10 years. He hates his job, but sees no better option for employment. He does as little as possible at work and has a bad attitude towards his superiors and clients. Gary is an example of...

an alienated bureaucrat

66

Inner circle

individuals who stand firmly behind a groups goals, who actively promote the group, and who are committed to maintaining the organization

67

Oligarchy

is the rule of the many by a few

68

What is the basis for organization of all voluntary associations?

mutual interest

69

The iron law of oligarchy refers to how organizations...

come to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating life

70

Why is excluding women and minorities from consideration for promotion a self-defeating choice for a business?

the business decreases its talent pool by excluding whole groups

71

What is an example of the hidden corporate culture?

a female employee's boss does not expect her to succeed, which is why she fails

72

Work teams

small groups of workers who try to develop solutions to problems in the workplace, as a step in humanizing the work setting

73

Cyberslacking

using computers for personal purposes

74

Why did Japan's corporations refuse to layoff workers in the 1990's?

they saw layoffs as a sign of disloyalty to workers

75

What kind of society is considered nontraditional, or rational?

industrial

76

A CEO retires from a corporation. Before he is gone, the next candidate has been primed for the position. This is an example of...

impersonality and replaceability in a bureaucracy

77

Who blamed the change on capitalism...

Karl Marx

78

Who shared his observations about American participation in voluntary organizations in the report Democracy in America?

Alexis de Tocqueville

79

The main purpose of work teams is to...

empower workers

80

Formal organization

is a secondary group designed to achieve specific objectives

81

Corporate culture

the values, norms, and other orientation that characterize corporate work settings