CIS 120 Test II

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created 4 years ago by jenkarmata
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Test 2
updated 4 years ago by jenkarmata
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1

Output

displays data & information in a form suitable for the user

2

Bit

Binary digit 0 or 1

3

Byte

Unique combinations of 8 bits of 0's and 1's

4

Motherboard

Located inside the system unit, contains the central electronic components of the computer including:

  • Processor (CPU)
  • ROM, RAM & Cache
  • Slots for expansion cards
  • Network interface card (NIC)
5

RAM

Random access memory- stores intructions & data currently using

- Temporary (Volatile) storage, that is erased when computer is turned off

6

ROM

Read only memory- stores start up instructions (needed for start up)

  • Permanent (NON volatile) storage- data is NOT erased when computer is turned off
7

CPU/ processor

"Brains" of the computer

  • Control all functions of the computer's components
  • Processes all commands & instructions
  • Performs billions of tasks per second without error
8

Ergonomics

Refers to how you set up your computer & other equipment to minimize your risk of injury or discomfort- monitor height, chair, lighting and taking breaks

9

Megabyte

1 million bytes of data, length of 4 printed books

10

Gigabyte

1 billion bytes of data

RAMS and hardrives are measured by GB

11

Resolution

Printers image clarity

  • Measured in dots per inch (dpi)
  • Higher dpi= greater level of detail and clarity
12

Processing

Manipulating, calculating & organizing data into information

13

Moore's Law

Describes the pace at which central processing units improve.

- This rule predicts that CPU capacity will double approx. every 2yrs.

14

Machine cycle

A process

  • Fetches required piece of data or instructions from RAM
  • It decodes into something the computer can understand
  • Executes the instruction
  • Stores the results to RAM before fetching the next instruction
15

Clock speed

Dictates how many instructions the CPU can process each second

16

Overclocking

Run CPU at a faster speed than the manufacturer recommends

17

Core

Contains the parts on a CPU required for processing

18

Hyperthreading

Enables a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set has finished

19

Telephony

Use of equipment to provide voice communications over a distance

20

Synchronizing

Process of updating your data

21

Bluetooth

Uses radio waves to transmit data signals

22

Memory module

AKA- memory cards

Small circuit boards that hold a series of RAM chips

- They fit into special slots on motherboard

23

MMS

Text, sound and images and video clips able to send to others phones or email.

24

Optical media

CD

DVDs

Blue ray Discs (BD)

25

Petabyte

1,000 terabytes

26

Physical memory

Amount of RAM sitting on memory modules in your computer

27

Port

DVI, HDMI, Display port adapter

28

SMS

short message texts up to 160 characters- uses cellphone network

29

SuperFetch

Monitors which application you use most and preloads these into your system memory so they'll be ready to go

30

VoIP

A form of voice based internal communication to make phone calls.

Examples: Digital phone, skype, tech similar to email

31

Sampling rate

Number of times per second a signal is measured and converted to a digital value

* Measured in kilobits per second

32

Analog

Waves that illustrate the loudness of a sound or brightness of colors in an image at a given moment in time.

33

e-reader

Device that can display etext & that has supporting tools, like note taking, bookmarks & integrated dictionaries

34

Electronic ink

Crisp, sharp grayscale presentation of text achieved by using millions of microcapsules with white & black particles in a clear fluid

35

GPS

System of 21 satellites (plus 3 squares) built and operated by the U.S. Military, that constantly orbits the earth. It pinpoints location on earth

36

Digital signal processor

Special chip that processes digital information & transmits signals quickly

37

Binary language

The language computers use to process data into information, consisting of only values 0 and 1

38

Megabyte

A unit of computer storage equal to approx. 1 million bytes

39

Non volatile storage

Permanent storage, as in ROM (read only memory)

40

Port

Interface which external devices are connected to the computer

41

Cache memory

Small blocks of memory, located directly on and next to CPU chip; acts as holding places for recently or frequently used instructions or data that the CPU accesses most.

*CPU can retrieve the instructions/data more quickly*

42

Raid 0

Strategy of running 2 hard drives in one system, cutting in half the time it takes to write a file.

43

Raid 1

Mirroring all data written on 1 hard drive to a second hard drive, providing instant backup of all data

44

Seek time

The time it takes for the hard drives to read/write heads to move over the surface of the disk to the correct track

45

Platter

A thin, round, metallic storage plates stacked onto the hard drive spindle

46

Codec

A rule implemented in either software/hardware, which squeezes a given amount of audio & video information into less space.

47

Access time

The time it takes a storage device to locate its stored data

48

Analog-to-digital converter

Converts analog signals to digital signals

49

Computer

A data processing device that gathers, processes, output & stores data.

50

Sector

Section of hard drive platter, wedge-shaped from center of the platter to the edge

51

Track

A concentric circle that serves as a storage area on a hard drive platter