The Endocrine System (Part 2b)

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The pituitary hormones of the anterior lobe and the thyroid hormones
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1

Regarding the Pars Distalis of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of the Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH).

Target: Thyroid Gland

Hormonal effect: Secretions of thyroid hormone

HRH: Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

2

Regarding the Pars Distalis of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of the Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH).

Target: Adrenal Cortex (zona fasciculate)

Hormonal Effect: Secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol, corticosterone)

HRH:

3

Regarding the Pars Distalis of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of the gonadotropin, FSH.

Target: Follicle cells of ovaries/nurse cells of testes

Hormonal Effect: Secretion of estrogen, follicle development/stimulation of sperm maturation

HRH: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone in both male and female

4

Regarding the Pars Distalis of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of gonadotropin LH.

Target: Follicle cells of ovaries/interstitial cells of testes

Hormonal Effect: Ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, secretion of progesterone/secretion of testosterone

HRH: Gondadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

5

Regarding the Pars Distalis of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of gonadatropin Prolactin (PRL).

Target: Mammary glands

Hormonal Effect: Production of Milk

HRH: Prolactin-releasing factor (PRF)

Prolactin - inhibiting hormone (PIH)

6

Regarding the Pars Distalis of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of gonadotropin GH.

Target: All cells

Hormonal effect: Growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization and catabolism

7

Regarding the Pars Intermedia of the anterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH).

Target:Melanocytes

Hormonal Effect: Increased melanin synthesis in epidermis

HRH: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone-inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH)

8

Regarding the Posterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH).

Target: Kidneys

Hormonal Effect: Reabsorption of water, elevation of blood volume and pressure

HRH: None

9

Regarding the Posterior lobe of the pituitary, give the target, hormonal effect and Hypothalamic regulatory hormone of Oxytocin.

Target: Uterus, mammary glands, (female) ducts deferens and prostate glands (males).

Hormonal Effects: Labor contractions, milk ejection, contractions of ductus deferens and prostate gland

HRH: None

10

Regarding the follicular epithelium cells of the thyroid gland, give the target cells, hormonal effect, and regulatory control of T3 and T4.

Target: most cells

Hormonal effect: increase energy utilization, oxygen consumption, growth, and development

Regulatory control: stimulated by TSH from anterior lobe of pituitary

11

Regarding the C cells of the thyroid gland, give the target cells, hormonal effect, and regulatory control of calcitonin.

Target: Bones and kidneys

Hormonal effect: Decreases Ca2+ concentrations in body fluids

Regulatory Control: Stimulated by elevated blood Ca2+ levels

12

Regarding the Parathyroid (chief) cells of the parathyroid gland, give the target, hormonal effect and regulatory control of PTH.

Target: Bone and kidneys

Hormonal Effect: Decreases Ca2+ concentration in body fluids

Regulatory Control: Stimulated by low blood Ca2+ levels