Exam 3

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Campbell Biology
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1

Gas exchange in the aquatic salamander known as the axolotl is correctly described as

simple diffusion of oxygen into the salamander from the water

2

In which of the following organisms does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body?

frogs

3

The only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart are the

fishes

4

Which pair of mammalian blood vessels has blood that is the least similar in its gas content?

the pulmonary veins and the jugular vein

5

Exhaled air has ________ than inhaled air

more carbon dioxide and less oxygen

6

From the right ventricle, blood floweth to the

lungs

7

What is the correct sequence of blood flow in reptiles and mammals?

vena cava > right atrium > right ventricle > pulmonary circuit

8

The set of blood vessels with the lowest blood pressure driving flow is

the veins

9

Fish secrete their nitrogenous waste as

ammonia

10

Birds secrete their nitrogenous waste as

uric acid

11

An increased concentration of nitric oxide within a vascular bed is associated with

vasodilation

12

Small swollen areas in the neck, groin, and axillary (arm pit) region are associated with

increased activity of the immune system

13

The blood pressure is lowest in the

venae cavae

14
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In the diagram, B is the

ureter

15
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In the diagram, D is the

urethra

16

The diagnosis of hypertension in adults is based on the

blood pressure being greater than 140mm Hg systolic and/or >90 diastolic

17

The hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells, and the organ where this hormone is synthesized, are

erythropoietin and the kidneys, respectively

18

Heart rate will increase in the presence of increased

epinephrine

19

In mammals, most gas exchange between the atmosphere and the pulmonary blood occurs in the

alveoli

20

Countercurrent exchange is evident in

the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills

21

Some human infants, especially those born prematurely, suffer serious respiratory failure because of

lung collapse due to inadequate production of surfactant

22

Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation becasue

the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume

23

Breathing is usually regulated by

CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors

24

Water has a ________oxygen concentration than air

lower

25

Frogs can absorb oxygen through their skin

TRUE

26

Blood returning to the mammalian heart in a pulmonary vein draws first into the

left atrium

27

Blood leaving the right atrium passes through the

right atrioventricular valve

28

When you hold your breath, which of the following blood gas changes first leads to the urge to breathe?

rising CO2

29

Blood leaving the left atrium passes through the

left atrioventricular valve

30
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In the diagram, 2 is pointing to the

superior vena cava

31
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4 is pointing to the

pulmonary vein

32
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9 is pointing to the

pulmonary artery

33
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12 is pointing to the

left atrioventricular valve

34
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6 is pointing to the

right atrioventricular valve

35
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15 is pointing to the

aorta

36

Most of the exchange surfaces of multicellular animals are lined with

epithelial tissue

37

An example of a connective tissue is the

blood

38

Food moves along the digestive tract as the result of contractions by

smooth muscle

39

An example of a properly functioning homeostatic control system is seen when

the kidneys excrete salt into the urine when dietary salt levels rise

40

Positive feedback has occurred when

uterine contractions needed for the birthing process are expedited by the pressure of a moving baby in its mother's uterus

41

In a survivably cold environment, an ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally sized endotherm because the ectotherm

invests little energy in temperature regulation

42

Endothermy

is a characteristic of animals that have fairly constant body temperature

43

The panting responses that are observed in overheated birds and mammals dissipates excess heat by

evaporation

44

An example of an organism that has only behavioral controls over its body

green frog

45

A moth preparing for flight on a cold morning warms its flight muscles via

shivering thermogenesis

46
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The thin horizontal arrows in the figure above show that

the warmer arterial blood transfers heat to the cooler venous blood

47
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C is pointing to the

trachea

48

E is pointing to the

bronchi

49

AC is pointing to the

alveoli

50

Urea is produced in the

liver from NH3 and CO2

51

Which nitrogenous waste has the greatest number of nitrogen atoms

uric acid

52

The nitrogenous waste that requires the most energy to produce is

uric acid

53

The advantage of excreting nitrogenous wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that

urea is less toxic than ammonia

54

In animals, nitrogenous wastes are produced mostly from the catabolism of

proteins and nucleic acids

55

The transfer of fluid from the glomerulus to Bowman's capsule

is mainly a consequence of blood pressure in the capillaries of the glomerulus

56

Within a normally functioning kidney, blood can be found in

the vasa recta

57

The filtrate in the renal pelvis enters directly from

the collecting duct

58

The filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule of the human does not normally include

glucose

59

Human urine is usually more acidic than most other bodily fluids becuase

hydrogen ions are actively moved into the filtrate

60

Increased ADH secretion is likely after

sweating-induced dehydration increases plasma osmolarity

61

Which process in the nephron is least selective

filtration

62
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Which of the following is excreted readily by aquatic animals because of its high solubility in the respiratory medium?

A

63
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Which of the following is synthesized by mammals, most amphibians, sharks, and some bony fishes, and has lower toxicity than its nitrogenous substrate?

B