Bones (Part 1)

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created 3 years ago by Rae_Harrison
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This is NOT a review of the bones themselves. more like their function and formation.
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1

How do you classify bones?

Shape

internal tissue orginization

bone markings

2

These bones are small, flat, irregular bones between the flat bones of the skull.

Sutural bones

3

These bones have complex shapes with short, flat notched, or ridged surfaces.

Irregular bones

4

These bones are small and boxy.

Short bones

5

These bones are thin with parallel surfaces, provide protection for underlying soft tissues and offer extensive surface area for skeletal muscle to attach to.

Flat bones

6

These bones are long and slender and are typically found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes.

Long bones

7

These bones are small and flat. There are only two of them

Sesamoid bones

8

Concerning the structure of a long bone, the heavy wall of compact bone surrounding the central space called the medullary cavity is what?

Diaphysis

9

Concerning the structure of a long bone, the wide part at each end that articulates with other bones and is mostly made up of sponge bone is called what?

Epiphysis

10

The meeting point of the diaphysis and epiphysis is known as what?

Metaphysis

11

Give an example of a flat bone

Parietal bone

12

A flat bone has compact bone on the outside and spongy bone on in inside, similar to a sandwich. what is the spongy layer called?

Diploe

13

These form narrow pathways through the bone matrix between lacunae and blood vessels for nutrients and waste exchange.

Canaliculi

14

This covers the outer surface of bones (except at the joints) and consists of outer fibrous layers and inner cellular layers.

Periosteum

15

This membrane is an incomplete cellular layer that lines the medullary cavity, covers trabeculae of spongy bone, and lines the central canals.

Endosteum

16

An endosteum contains what cells?`

osteoblast

osteoprogenitor cells

osteoclasts

17

Where the cellular layer is incomplete, the matrix is exposed allowing osteoclasts and osteoblasts to do what?

remodel matrix components

18

What are the 4 kinds of bone cells?

Osteoclasts

Osteoblasts

Osteocytes

Osteoprogenitor cells

19

These cells are the most abundant, maintain the bone matrix, live in lacunae and are connected by canaliculi.

Osteocytes

20

What are the two major functions of osteocytes?

maintain protein and mineral content of the bone matrix

help repair bone damage

21

What is the basic functional unit of compact bone?

Osteon

22

Osteocytes are arranged in ??? around a ??? containing blood vessels that supply blood to and from the osteon.

Concentric lamellae

Central Canal

23

These radiate through the lamellae containing the lacunae of osteons with one another and the central canal.

Canaliculi

24

These are passageways lying perpendicular to the central canal that carry blood vessels deeper into the bone and to the marrow cavity.

Perforating canals

25

This is found at the outer and inner surfaces of bones where they are covered by the periosteum and endosteum.

Circumferential Lamellae

26

What kind of osteon arrangement in bones makes them very strong when stressed along the axis of alignment?

Parallel to the long axis of the diaphysis

27

Spongy bone doesn't have osteons but rather a matrix that forms an open network of what?

Trabeculae

28

The space between trabeculae is filled with what?

Red bone marrow

29

Trabeculae are oriented along what?

Stress lines

30

What are bone markings?

points of muscle, tendon attachments that allow vessels and nerves throughway and where other bones articulate

31

What are the three kinds of bone markings?

Depressions/grooves

Elevations/projections

Tunnels

32

This kind of bone marking is usually found along the bone surface.

Depressions/grooves

33

These bone markings are where tendons and ligaments attach and where adjacent bones articulate (joints).

Elevations/Projections

34

These bone markings are where blood vessels and nerves enter the bone.

Tunnels

35

Give the 4 different kinds of projection bone markings.

Head

Facet

Condyle

Ramus

36

Give the 6 different kinds of depression and opening bone markings.

Meatus

Sinus

Fossa

Groove

Fissure

Foramen

37

The axial skeleton has how many bones?

80

38

The axial skeleton consists of what three major regions?

Skull

Vertebral Column

Thoracic Cage