Special Senses (Part 2)

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1

These overcome the loss of specificity by varing the pattern of activities in their receptive field, which improves the detection of the edges of objects.

Ganglion Cells

2

These neurons are excited by light arriving in the center of their sensory field and are inhibited when light strikes the edges of their receptive field.

On-Center Neurons

3

These neurons are inhibited by light in the central zone and are stimulated by illumination at the edges of their receptive field.

Off-Center Neurons

4

These are ganglion cells that monitor rods.

M Cells

5

M Cells are relatively large cells that provide information about what?

General form of object

Motion

Shadows in dim lighting

6

These ganglion cells are smaller than M cells and more numerous, monitor the cones, and provide information about edges, fine detail, and color.

P Cells

7

The 2 optic nerves (1 from each eye) reach the diencephalon at what point?

The optic chiasm

8

At the optic chiasm, half the fibers proceed toward what? The other half proceeds toward what?

The lateral geniculate of the same side of the brain. the opposite side of the brain

9

Visual data from each lateral geniculate nucleus travels to the what?

The occipital cortex of the cerebral hemisphere on that side.

10

Collaterals from the fibers synapsing within the lateral geniculate continue to subconscious processing centers within the diencephalon and brain stem is reffered to as what?

Optic radiation

11

Give the visual pathway.

Photoreceptors in retina

Optic nerve II

Optic chiasm

Optic tract

Lateral geniculate nucleus

Projection fibers (optic radiation)

Visual cortex of cerebral hemispheres

12

Collaterals that bypass the lateral geniculate can synapse where?

in the superior colliculi or hypothalamus

13

The hypothalamus works with what to use the visual info to establish a daily pattern of visual activity?

Pineal Gland

14

What happens to visual images when we look straight ahead?

they overlap

15

What is obtained by comparing relative positions of objects between the right and left eye images?

Depth perceptions

16

This surrounds the entrance to the external acoustic meatus and protects it. it provides directional sensitivity as well.

Auricle (pinna)

17

This is a thin, semitransparent sheet that separates external ear from middle ear.

Tympanic membrane

18

These are integumentary glands along the external acoustic meatus that secrete a waxy material.

Ceruminous glands

19

The waxy material secreted by ceruminous glands is called what?

Cerumen (ear wax)

20

What does cerumen (ear wax) do?

Keeps out foreign objects

slows growth of microorganisms

21

What is the other name of the middle ear?

tympanic cavity

22

How does the nasopharynx communicated with the middle ear?

auditory tube (Eustachian tube)

23

What are the inner ear bones known as?

Auditory ossicles

24

Name the three auditory ossicles.

Malleus

Incus

Stapes

25

The auditory ossicles conduct sound vibrations from the tympanic membrane to where?

The oval window

26

What are the two muscles that protect the ear drum and ossicles from violent movements under high noise levels?

Tensor tympani muscle

Stapedious muscle

27

This muscle stiffens the tympanic membrane, reducing movement.

Tensor tympani muscle

28

This muscle reduces movement of stapes at the oval window.

Stapedius muscle

29

The superficial contours of the internal ear are formed by the what?

Bony Labyrinth

30

The boney labyrinth surrounds and protects what?

Membranous labyrinth

31

The membranous labyrinth contains fluid called what?

Endolymph

32

The space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth contains a fluid called what?

Perilymph

33

What are the three subdivisions of the boney labyrinth?

Vestibule

Semicircular canals

cochlea

34

This encloses a pair of membranous sacs called the saccule and utricle.

Vestibule

35

These have receptors within them that provide a sensation of gravity and linear acceleration.

Saccule and utricle

36

These have receptors within ducts and are stimulated by the rotation of the head.

Semicircular canals

37

The combination of the vestibule and semicircular canals is called the what?

Vestibular Complex

38

This contains the cochlear duct and has receptors that provides a sense of hearing.

Cochlea

39

The walls of the boney labyrinth are consist of dense bone everywhere except what two locations?

The round and oval windows

40

This is a thin, membranous partition that seperates perilymph of the cochlea from air space in the middle ear.

Round window

41

This is formed of collagen fibers that connect to base of stapes.

Oval window

42

Sense of gravity and acceleration originates where?

from hair cells in vestibule

43

Sense of rotation originates where?

from semicircular canals

44

Sense of sound rotates where?

from cochlea

45

These are the basic receptors of the inner ear.

Hair cells

46

Hair cells are always surrounded by supporting cells and monitored by what?

Dendrites of sensory neurons

47

The free surface of each cell supports 80-100 what?

stereocilia

48

Each hair cell in the vestibule contains a single large cilium known as what?

kinociium

49

In the semicircular ducts, what region contains the hair cells?

Ampulla

50

These are oval structures where hair cells cluster and are embedded in a gelatinous mass.

Maculae

51

This is the densely packed calcium carbonate crystals on the surface of the gelatinous mass.

Statoconia

52

This is the gelatinous matrix and statoconia.

Otolith (ear stone)

53

Hair cells of the vestibule and semicircular ducts are monitored by sensory neurons located in the what?

Vestibular ganglia

54

What are the 4 functions of vestibular nuclei?

integrate sensory info of balance

relay information from vestibular complex to cerebellum

relay information from vestibular complex to cerebral cortex

send commands to motor nuclei in brain stem and spinal cord

55

This receives input from cerebrum and cerebellum and sends motor commands that affect upper limb positions and background muscle tone.

The red nucleus

56

This receives information over the vestibulocochlear nerve from receptors in jthe inner ear.

Vestibular nuclei

57

Automatic movements of the eyes that occur in response to sensations of motion are directed by what?

Superior colliculi of the midbrain

58

This is when an individual has trouble controlling eye movements, and is caused by damage to brain stem or inner ear.

Nystagmus

59

The frequency of sound is determined by the stimulation of what?

which part of the cochlear duct

60

The intensity or volume is determined by what?

The number of hair cells stimulated

61

The cochlear duct lies between what two chambers?

Scala vestibule and scali tympani

62

The cochlear duct contains hair c3ells that are located within what structure?

Organ of Corti

63

This seperates the cochlear duct from the scali tympani and has hair cells that lack kinocilia.

Basilar membrane

64

The basilar membrane moves in response to pressure fluctuations within the perilymph chambers. these pressure changes are created by what?

sound waves hitting the tympanic membrane

65

As the basilar membrane bounces up and down, the stereocilia are pressed against what?

The tectorial membrane

66

Stimulated hair cells are monitored by sensory neurons which carry information to what?

The CNS

67

Pressure waves traveling through a medium is known as what?

sound

68

The sound waves that consist of regions where air molecules are crowded together and adjacent zones where molecules are farther apart is known as what?

Sine waves

69

Our sensory response to frequency is what?

Pitch

70

The intensity of sound waves is known as what?

Amplitude

71

The combination of frequencies and amplitude is known as what?

Resonance

72

As hair cells are distorted, ion channels within their plasma membrane are opened resulting in what?

depolarization of hair cells

73

This is formed by afferent fibers of spiral ganglion neurons

cochlear branch

74

The temporal cortex contains a map of what?

the spiral ganglion

75

What effects does aging have on the ear?

tympanic membrane gets less flexible

articulations between ossicles stiffen

round window may begin to ossify