Special Senses (Part 1)

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created 4 years ago by Rae_Harrison
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This is mostly about the eye but other senses will be added in different sets
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1

What are the 5 senses?

Olfaction (smell)

Gustation (taste)

Vision

Equilibrium

Hearing

2

What is the point of the accessory structures?

Defend and support

3

What pathway does a tear follow starting at the gland?

Lacrimal gland

lacrimal ducts

surface of eye

lacrimal puncta

lacrimal canaliculi

lacrimal sac

nasolacrimal duct

4

What is the point of blinking?

keeps eye surface lubricated, and free of disease

5

What's another name for eyelids?

Palpebrae

6

What is the function of eyelashes?

prevent forging matter from reaching the eye

7

This is a modified sebaceous gland on inner eyelid margin.

Tarsal gland

8

Whats another name for tarsal gland?

Meibomian gland

9

The tarsal glands secrete a lipid-rich product that helps do what?

prevents eyelids from sticking together

10

A cyst resulting from an infected tarsal gland is known as what?

Chalazion

11

An inflammation of conjunctiva due to infection, physical, allergic, or chemical irritation is known as what?

Conjuctivitis

12

The transparent portion of outer fibrous layers that is covered by 5-7 layers of delicate squamous epithelium is known as what?

Cornea

13

Tears are formed in what gland?

Lacrimal gland

14

Tears contain an antibacterial known as what?

Lysozyme

15

The large posterior cavity of the eye contains what kind of jelly-like substance?

Vitreous humor

16

The small anterior cavity contains what kind of water substance?

Aqueous humor

17

The anterior portion of the eye is further separated into two chambers. Where is the anterior chamber located?

Between cornea and iris

18

The anterior portion of the eye is further separated into two chambers. Where is the posterior chamber located?

between the iris and the lens

19

What divides the two many anterior and posterior chambers of the eye?

The ciliary body and the lens

20

What is the point of Aqueous humor?

provides an important route for nutrient and waste transport

21

What, in the aqueous humor, helps to retain eye shape?

Fluid pressure

22

This is the result of inadequate drainage of aqueous humor.

Glaucoma

23

What are the three layers of the eye wall from outer to deep?

fibrous layer (sclera)

vascular layer (uvea)

inner layer (retina)

24

The Sclera is made up of what?

Dense connective tissue (collegen and elastin)

25

This provides a route for blood vessels and lymphatics that supply the eye tissue, regulates amount of light entering eye, secretes and reabsorbs aqueous humor, and controls the shape of the lense.

Vascular layer (Uvea)

26

The Iris is contained in this layer, it has blood vessels and lymphatics, pigment cells, and papillary muscles. It changes the diameter of the pupil and attaches to ciliarly body posteriorly.

Vascular layer (uvea)

27

This muscle extends radially away from the edge of the pupil. contraction of these muscles enlarges the pupil.

Pupillary dilator

28

These muscles form a series of concentric circles around the pupil, when these sphincter muscles contract, the diameter of the pupil decreases.

The pupillary constrictors

29

The ciliary body attaches to what?

Iris

30

What are the two kinds of photoreceptors?

Rods and Cones

31

These photoreceptors only see in black, gray, and white, are highly sensitive to light, and enable us to see in dimly lit rooms.

Rods

32

These photoreceptors provide color vision, require more light, and densely cluster in fovea at the center of macula.

Cones

33

These cells extend across the neural layer of the retina at the level of synapses between bipolar cells and photoreceptors.

Horizontal cells

34

These cells are comparable to the horizontal cells and occur where bipolar cells synapses with ganglion cells.

Amacrine cells

35

These cells facilitate or inhibit communication between photoreceptors and ganglion cells by altering the sensitivity of the retina.

Horizontal and Amacrine Cells

36

The lens is held in place by what?

suspensory ligaments of the ciliary body

37

The primary function of this is to focus the visual image on photoreceptors.

The lens

38

The lens is filled with transparent proteins called what?

Crystallins

39

In this condition, the lens has lost its transparency and can occur due to age but can also result from injuries, drugs, and radiation.

Cataract

40

This is the bending of light when I passes from one medium to another. I.E., cornea to aqueous humor to lens.

Light Refraction

41

When light is refracted to a specific point of intersection on the retina, it is known as what?

Focal point

42

The distance between the center of the lens and the focal point is known as what?

Focal distance

43

The focal distance is affected by what two things?

the distance of an object from a lens

shape of the lense

44

The automatic adjustment of the eye to give us clear vision is called what?

Accommodation

45

This is a condition where light passing through the cornea and lens is not refracted properly due to degree of the curvature from one axis to another.

Astigmatism

46

As light from an image is focused onto the retina, a miniature image of the original results, but arrives upside down and reversed. This is known as what?f

Image reversal

47

This is defined as the level of detail seen at a distance of 20 feet by an individual with normal vision.

Visual acuity

48

If the resting curvature of the lens is too great, this is known as what?

Myopia (nearsightedness)

49

If the lens is too flat, this is known as?

Hyperopia (farsightedness)

50

The basic unit of light, detected by photoreceptors, is known as what?

Photons

51

Concerning the anatomy of rods and cones, what segment contains visual pigment?

The outer segment

52

Concerning the anatomy of rods and cones, what segment contains the cells organelles and is responsible for all cell functions other than photoreception?

Inner segment

53

Concerning the anatomy of rods and cones, where does light absorption occur?

in the visual pigments

54

Concerning cones, this determines the wavelength of light that can be absorbed by the retinal.

Opsin

55

The inability to detect certain colors is known as what?

Color blindness

56

The plasma membrane in the outer segment of a photoreceptor contains what kind of gate?

Chemically gated Na+ channel

57

In darkness, are the chemically gated Na+ channels open or closed in the photoreceptors?

Open

58

When the chemically gated Na+ channels remain open, this is continuously released across the synapse at the inner segment.

Glutamate (NTs)

59

What activates rhodopsin?

Light

60

What does rhodopsin activate?

phosphodiesterase (PDE)

61

What causes cGMP to decline and closes Na+ channels causeing hyperpolarization?

phosphodiesterase (PDE)

62

When Na+ channels close, the membrane plasma hyperpolarizes and the rate of NT does what?

decreases

63

When this happens, rhodopsin molecule breaks down into retinal and opsin and can contribute to lingering visual impressions after seeing a cameras flash.

Bleaching

64

Where does the visual pathways begin and end?

Begin at photoreceptors and end at visual cortex of cerebral hemispheres`