An Introduction to the ANS and Higher-Order Functions (Part 2)

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1

In regards to sympathetic stimulation, in nitroxidergic synapses, what is released as a neurotransmitter?

nitric oxide (NO)

2

The adrenal medullae has very short postganglionic axons and release neurotransmitters into where?

the bloodstream

3

Adrenal medullae preganglionic fibers enter the adrenal gland and proceed to center and synapse on neuroendocrine cells that do what?

secrete hormones into the bloodstream

4

Neuroendocrine cells secrete what two neurotransmitters?

epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)

5

Epinephrine is also known as what?

Adrenaline

6

The hormones secreted by this cause changes in metabolic activities of different cells, including cells not innervated by sympathetic postganglionic fibers.

Adrenal Medullae

7

Why do the effects of the hormones produced by the adrenal medullae last longer than those produced by direct sympathetic innervation?

because the hormones continue to diffuse out of the bloodstream

8

The SNS can change activities of tissue and organs by releasing what at the peripheral synapse?

NE and E

9

What gland controls the flight or fight response?

Hypothalamus

10

Changes caused by sympathetic activation result in what overall effect?

Prepares an individual to cope with a stressful situation

11

The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave the brain as components of what cranial nerves?

III

VII

IX

X

12

Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave the spinal cord at what level?

The sacral level

13

Preganglionic fibers terminate within ganglia located where?

within or immediately adjacent to the target organ

14

Postganglionic neurons terminal ganglion are located where?

Near target organ

15

Postganglionic neurons intramural ganglion are located where?

embedded in tissues of target organ

16

What nerve provides 75% of all parasympathetic outflow?

Vegus Nerve

17

Pelvic nerves innervate intramural ganglia in the walls of what organs?

Kidneys, urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and the sex organs

18

Parasympathetic activation centers on what activities?

food processing and energy absorption

19

what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the eyes?

constrict the pupils

20

what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the digestive system?

secretion of digestive glands and increase smooth muscle activity

21

what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the body glands?s

secretion of hormones

22

what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the blood in relation to gland activity?

Changes blood flow i.e. sexual arousal

23

in the neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions, all parasympathetic neurons release what as a neurotransmitter?

ACh

24

when ganglionic neurons or muscle fibers are exposed to ACh, what is the reaction?

Excitation

25

These are on the surfaces of all ganglion cells with which preganglionic fibers synapse.

Nicotinic recpeptors

26

These membrane receptors are found at cholinergic neuromuscular or neuroglandular junctions in the parasympathetic division.

muscarinic receptors

27

Muscarinic receptors are what kind of protiens?

G protiens

28

Muscarine targets what junctions?

neuromuscular or neuroglandular

29

Is a sympathetic division impact wide spread or narrow?

Wide

30

Is a parasympathetic division impact wide spread or narrow?

Narrow

31

Do most vital organs receive instructions from sympathetic or parasympathetic divisions?

Both

32

This plexus has nerve networks in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities that are formed by mingled sympathetic postganglionic fibers and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers.

Autonomic plexus

33

These two plexus have autonomic fibers entering the thoracic cavity and contain sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for the heart and lungs.

Cardiac and Pulmonary Plexuses

34

This plexus contains descending branches of the vagus nerve and has splanchnic nerves leaving the sympathetic chain.

Esophageal Plexus

35

This plexus is associated with smaller plexuses such as the inferior mesenteric plexus and innervates viscera within abdominal cavity.

Celiac Plexus

36

This plexus contains parasympathetic outflow of pelvic nerves, sympathetic post ganglion fibers, and innervates digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs of the pelvic cavity.

Hypogastric plexus

37

This major organ of the circulatory system receives duel innervation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divison

Heart

38

This neurotransmitter released by the parasympathetic division slows the heart rate.

Acetylcholine

39

This neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic division accelerates the heart rate.

Noepinephrine

40

This is an important aspect of ANS function, can make an inactive nerve, under normal conditions, increase activity, and if a nerve maintains background level of activity it can increase or decrease activity.

Autonomic Tone