An Introduction to the ANS and Higher-Order Functions (Part 2)
In regards to sympathetic stimulation, in nitroxidergic synapses, what is released as a neurotransmitter?
nitric oxide (NO)
The adrenal medullae has very short postganglionic axons and release neurotransmitters into where?
Adrenal medullae preganglionic fibers enter the adrenal gland and proceed to center and synapse on neuroendocrine cells that do what?
secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Neuroendocrine cells secrete what two neurotransmitters?
epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE)
Epinephrine is also known as what?
The hormones secreted by this cause changes in metabolic activities of different cells, including cells not innervated by sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
Why do the effects of the hormones produced by the adrenal medullae last longer than those produced by direct sympathetic innervation?
because the hormones continue to diffuse out of the bloodstream
The SNS can change activities of tissue and organs by releasing what at the peripheral synapse?
NE and E
What gland controls the flight or fight response?
Changes caused by sympathetic activation result in what overall effect?
Prepares an individual to cope with a stressful situation
The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave the brain as components of what cranial nerves?
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers leave the spinal cord at what level?
The sacral level
Preganglionic fibers terminate within ganglia located where?
within or immediately adjacent to the target organ
Postganglionic neurons terminal ganglion are located where?
Near target organ
Postganglionic neurons intramural ganglion are located where?
embedded in tissues of target organ
What nerve provides 75% of all parasympathetic outflow?
Pelvic nerves innervate intramural ganglia in the walls of what organs?
Kidneys, urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and the sex organs
Parasympathetic activation centers on what activities?
food processing and energy absorption
what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the eyes?
constrict the pupils
what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the digestive system?
secretion of digestive glands and increase smooth muscle activity
what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the body glands?s
secretion of hormones
what effect does the parasympathetic division have on the blood in relation to gland activity?
Changes blood flow i.e. sexual arousal
in the neuromuscular and neuroglandular junctions, all parasympathetic neurons release what as a neurotransmitter?
when ganglionic neurons or muscle fibers are exposed to ACh, what is the reaction?
These are on the surfaces of all ganglion cells with which preganglionic fibers synapse.
These membrane receptors are found at cholinergic neuromuscular or neuroglandular junctions in the parasympathetic division.
Muscarinic receptors are what kind of protiens?
Muscarine targets what junctions?
neuromuscular or neuroglandular
Is a sympathetic division impact wide spread or narrow?
Is a parasympathetic division impact wide spread or narrow?
Do most vital organs receive instructions from sympathetic or parasympathetic divisions?
This plexus has nerve networks in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities that are formed by mingled sympathetic postganglionic fibers and parasympathetic preganglionic fibers.
These two plexus have autonomic fibers entering the thoracic cavity and contain sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers for the heart and lungs.
Cardiac and Pulmonary Plexuses
This plexus contains descending branches of the vagus nerve and has splanchnic nerves leaving the sympathetic chain.
This plexus is associated with smaller plexuses such as the inferior mesenteric plexus and innervates viscera within abdominal cavity.
This plexus contains parasympathetic outflow of pelvic nerves, sympathetic post ganglion fibers, and innervates digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs of the pelvic cavity.
This major organ of the circulatory system receives duel innervation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divison
This neurotransmitter released by the parasympathetic division slows the heart rate.
This neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic division accelerates the heart rate.
This is an important aspect of ANS function, can make an inactive nerve, under normal conditions, increase activity, and if a nerve maintains background level of activity it can increase or decrease activity.