Micro Bio Chp 5 Exam 2

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Microbiology
Chapter 5
Microbiology Kingwood Tx
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1

Which of the following statements concerning cellular metabolism is FALSE?

Macromolecules are converted into cell structures via catabolism

2

Anabolic reactions may be characterized as

forming large molecules from smaller molecules

3

Which of the following statements concerning reduction reactions is FALSE?

An electron acceptor becomes more positively charged

4

The molecule that an enzyme acts upon is known as its

Substrate

5

Which of the following statements concerning enzymes is FALSE?

They always function best at 37* C.

6

Sulfanilamide is an antimicrobial drug that mimics the shape of an important substrate for a particular bacterial enzyme, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. This type of inhibition is known as ?

competitive inhibition

7

Which of the following produces NADPH?

both the pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff pathways

8

Which of the following statements concerning glycolysis is TRUE?

If both requires the input of ATP and produces ATP

9

Which of the following is required for holoenzyme function?

a coenzyme

10

Pyruvic acid is a product of

both glycolysis and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway

11

All of the following are forms of oxidation EXCEPT

substrate level phosphorylation

12

Which of the following can be the final electron acceptor in anaerobic respiration in bacteria?

both nitrate and sulfate

13

Which of the following is a non-protein carrier found in some electron transport chains?

ubiquinones

14

A catabolic process which occurs in eukaryotic mitochondria is

beta-oxidation

15

Which of the following is a by-product of the catabolism of proteins?

ammonia

16

What is the purpose of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?

production of ATP and NADH

17

Which of the following is/are common to chemiosmosis and the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis?

both electron transport and a protein gradient

18

Which of the following is a fermentation product useful in the manufacture of cheese?

lactic acid

19

How many ATP molecules can theoretically be produced from the NADH generated by the catabolism of a molecule of glucose during aerobic respiration?

30

20

The various types of chlorophyll differ in the

wavelengths of light they absorb

21

Photosystems are assembled in

thylakoids

22

Beta oxidation of fatty acids produces a substrate of the

Krebs Cycle

23

Which of the following is associated with the Calvin Benson cycle?

RuBP

24

What is the major product of the Calvin Benson cycle that can then be used to form glucose?

glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate

25

Chemical reactions that can proceed toward either anabolism or catabolism are called?

amphibolic

26

If a cell reverses the process of beta-oxidation, which of the following molecules will it make?

fatty acids

27

When a cell forms an amino acid by adding an amine group derived from ammonia to a precursor metabolite, this process is called?

amination

28

The conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates is an example of

gluconeogenesis

29

All of the following are aspects of a cell's ability to regulate its metabolism EXCEPT

use of the same coenzymes for anabolic and catabolic reactions that share substrate molecules

30

The metabolic processes called fermentation

use an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor

31

Which of the following is TRUE concerning the structure and function of enzymes?

After an enzyme has catalyzed a reaction, it resumes its original shape and can interact with a new substrate molecule.

32

Light energy is used to fuel the assembly of carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates in the process known as

photosynthesis

33

Where is the majority of ATP generated in most eukaryotic cells?

in the mitochondrial matrix

34

The conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA can be described as ______, because a molecule of CO2 is produced as a by product.

decarboxylation

35

Although glycolysis requires an input of ATP, this pathway results in a net gain of two ATP; therefore it is an ______ pathway

exergonic

36

Enzymes known as lyases participate in _____ reactions,

catabolic

37

Isomerases catalyze reactions in which

atoms in biomolecules are rearranged.

38

During the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvic acid, ______ is produced.

NADH

39

During reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases an electron donor is

oxidized

40

Hydrolases are generally involved in _______ reactions.

catabolic

41

Reactions involving ligases are typically _____ reactions.

anabolic

42

Substrate level phosphorylation occurs during the _____ stages of glycolysis.

energy investment and energy conservation

43

The production of NADH takes place during the _______ stage of glycolysis.

energy-conservation

44

Glycolysis begins with an ________ stage.

energy-investment

45

Identify the processes of glucose metabolism represented in Figure 5-1.

A= glycolysis, B= fermentation, C= Krebs cycle, D= electron transport chain

46

Which of the following products of glucose catabolism is a substrate for fatty acid synthesis?

acetly-CoA

47

The conversion of phosphoenol pyruvic acid (PEP) to pyruvic acid results in the production of an ATP. This reaction is an example of (substrate-level /oxidative) phosphorylation.

substrate-level

48

Another term for a protein catalyst is an (enzyme/ ribozyme).

enzyme

49

A (oxidation/ reduction/ transport) reaction is one in which a molecule accepts an electron.

reduction

50

The (activation / inhibition/ saturation) point of an enzyme is reached when all active sites have bound substrate molecules.

saturation

51

When a noncompetitive inhibitor molecule binds to an (active/ allosteric) site on an enzyme, the shape of the active site changes so that the substrate molecules can no longer bind.

allosteric

52

During glycolysis, glucose is converted to (pyruvic/ acetic/ lactic) acid, a molecule that can be uses in either fermentation or respiration pathways.

Pyruvic

53

Electrons are transferred in the Krebs cycle in the form of (oxygen/ hydrogen) atoms to NAD+ and FAD.

hydrogen

54

The purpose of the electron transport is to create a proton (concentration/ gradient/ pump) across a membrane that can then be used to make ATP.

gradient

55

Anaerobic respiration involves the use of molecules other than oxygen as the final electron (acceptor/ donor) in an election transport chain.

acceptor

56

Laboratory fermentation tests often include a pH indicator because many bacteria produce (CO2/ bases/ acids) as they ferment carbohydrates.

acids

57

The (transferases/ transaminases/ deaminases) generate amino acids from carbohydrate precursors and glutamic acid.

transaminases

58

A (photosystem/ thylakoid/ grana) is a collection of pigments such as chlorophyll that are used to absorb light in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.

photosystem

59

Waste products such as sulfur are produced by (oxygenic/ anoxygenic/ aerobic) photosynthetic bacteria as they obtain electrons for noncyclic photophosphorylation.

anoxygenic

60

Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the (activation/ reaction) energy.

activation

61

Significant amounts of the NADPH required for the Calvin-Benson cycle are produced during the (cyclic/ noncyclic) photophosphorylation reactions of photosynthesis.

noncyclic

62

Only photosystem I is required for (cyclic/ noncyclic) photophosphorylation to occur.

Cyclic