Intro to Neural Pathways and the Somatic System (Part 1)

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1

What division of the nervous system is comprised of receptors, sensory neurons, and sensory pathways?

The afferent division

2

What division of the nervous system is comprised of nuclei, motor tracts, and motor neurons?

The efferent divison

3

nWhat specialized cells monitor specific conditions in both the external and internal bodily enviorment?

Sensory Receptors

4

When stimulated, a receptor passes info to the CNS in the form of action potential along the axon of a sensory neuron. This is called what?

Transduction

5

These pathways deliver somatic and visceral sensory information to their final destinations. What are these pathways called?

Sensory pathways

6

When sensory information is sent inside the CNS along the sensory pathways, what three ways of transportation are used?

Nerves

Nuclei

Tracts

7

The somatic portion of the Efferent division controls what effectors?

The peripheral effectors

8

The somatic motor commands travel from motor centers in the brain along what three pathways?

Motor nuclei

tracts

nervesf

9

Each receptor has a characteristic sensitivity. This is called what?

Receptor specificity

10

The area monitored by a sing receptor cell is known as what?

Receptive fieldf

11

The large the receptive field is, the more difficult it is to do what to a stimulus?

Localize it

12

Arriving stimulus reaches what of the cerebrum via labeled line?

cortical neurons

13

What forms can a stimulus take?

light

sound

dissolved chemicals

physical force

14

How many classifications of sensory receptors are there?

Three

15

What are the three classifications of sensory receptors?

Exteroceptors

Proprioceptors

interoceptors

16

Exteroceptors provide information about what?

The external enviornment

17

Proprioceptors provide information about what?

Positions of skeletal muscles and joints

18

Interoceptors provide information about what?

visceral organs and functions

19

Which receptor provides a purely somatic sensation?

Proprioceptors

20

What is a reduction in sensitivity from a constant stimulus?

adaptation

21

what two things of an action potential provide information about the strength, duration, and variation of stimulus?

Frequency

Pattern

22

Your perception of the nature of a stimulus depends on what?

The path it takes inside the CNS

23

What receptors are ALWAYS active and slow-adapting, and remind you of an injury long after it occurs?

Tonic receptors

24

What receptors are normally inactive, become active for only a short time when a change occurs and are fast-adapting?

Phasic receptors

25

How many general sensory receptors are there?

Four

26

Name the four general sensory receptors.

Nocireceptors

Thermorececptors

Mechanoreceptors

Chemoreceptors

27

What receptors are considered to be pain receptors?

Nocireceptors

28

What things can nociceptors be sensitive to?

Extreme temperatures

Mechanical damage

Dissolved chemicals

29

Nociceptors have what kind of nerve endings?

Free nerve endings

30

What two types of axon fibers do nociceptors have?

Type A and Type C fibers

31

These axon fibers carry sensations of fast pain or prickling pain such as an injection.

Myelinated Type A fibers

32

These fibers are relayed to the primary sensory cortex and receive conscious attention.

Myelinated Type A fibers

33

These axon fibers carry sensations of slow pain, or burning and aching pain.

Type C fibers

34

These fibers allow you to become aware of the pain but only have a general idea of the affected area.

Type C fibers

35

These receptors are also called temperature receptors and have free nerve endings.

Thermoreceptors

36

The thermoreceptors are located in what 4 areas?

The dermis

Skeletal muscles

The liver

The hypothalamus

37

The thermorecpetors conduct along the same pathways that also sense what?

Pain

38

The thermoreceptors send information to what three places?

Reticular formation

Thalaus

Primary sensory cortex (lesser extent)

39

What kind of receptors are sensitive to stimuli that distort their plasma membranes and travel via the thalamus?

Mechanoreceptors

40

Mechanoreceptors contain what kind of ion channels?

Mechanically gated

41

What kind of things do mechanoreceptors respond to?

Stretching

Compression

Twisting

Other distortions of membranes

42

The mechanoreceptors are classified by what three subrececptor categories?

Tactile receptors

baroreceptors

proprioreceptors

43

How many different kinds of tactile receptors are there?

Six

44

What kind of mechanoreceptors provide the sensations of touch, pressure, and vibrations?

Tactile receptors

45

Tactile receptors that are fine touch and pressure receptors have what kind of a receptive field?

Narrow

46

Tactile receptors that are crude touch and pressure receptors have what kind of a receptive field?

Large

47

Of the six types of tactile receptors, which one is sensitive to touch and pressure, and is situated between epidermal cells?

Free nerve endings

48

Of the six types of tactile receptors, which monitors distortion and movements across the body surface wherever hairs are located?

Root hair plexus

49

What kind of tactile receptors are known as Merkel discs, respond to fine touch and pressure receptors, and are extremely sensitive to tonic receptors?

Tactile discs

50

What kind of tactile receptors are called Meissners corpuscles and precieve sensations of fine touch, pressure and low frequency vibration?

Tactile Corpuscles

51

What kind of tactile receptor is also called pacinian corpuscles and are sensitive to deep pressure and have fast acting receptors?

Lamellated corpuscles

52

What kind of tactile receptor is sensitive to deep pressure and distortion of the skin, are located in the reticular dermis (deep), and show little if any adaptation?

Ruffini corpusclses

53

These mechanoreceptors detect pressure changes in the walls of the blood vessels, portions of the digestive tract and urinary tract.

Barorecptors

54

Baroreceptors respond to changes in what?

pressure

55

These receptors monitor the position of joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Proprioceptors

56

What are the three major groups of Proprioceptors?

Muscle spindles

Golgi tendon organs

Receptors in joint capsuls

57

These proprioceptors monitor skeletal muscle length and trigger stretch reflexes.

Muscle spindles

58

These proprioceptors are located at the junction between skeletal muscle and its tendon. its stimulated by the tension of the tendon.

Golgi tendon organs

59

These proprioceptors are free nerve endings that detect pressure, tension, and movement at the joint.

Receptors in Joint capsules

60

These receptors respond only to water-soluble and lipid-soluble substances that are dissolved in the surrounding fluid.

Chemoreceptors

61

Chemoreceptors that monitor pH, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in arterial blood are located where?F

Carotid bodies

Aortic bodies