Nervous System (Part 6a)

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Reviewing Brain Structures and Cranial Nerves
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1

What are the 6 major regions of the brain?

Cerebrum

cerebellum

diencephalon

mesencephalon

Pons

Medulla oblongata

2

What is the largest part of the brain?

cerebrum

3

What are the deep grooves in the cerebrum called?

fissure

4

What are the shallow depression in the cerebrum called?

sulci

5

What are the bumps in the cerebrum called?

gyri

6

What part of the brain controls higher mental functions such as conscious thought, intellect, and memory storage?

Cerebrum

7

What is the surface layer of the Cerebrum?

gray matter

8

The surface layer of gray matter is called what?

neural cortex

9

What part of the brain processes somatic sensory and motor information?

cerebrum

10

Name the brain lobes.

Frontal

temporal

parietal

occipital

11

The Lateral sulcus seperates what from what?

frontal lobe from temporal lobe

12

The central sulcus seprataes what?

anterior frontal lobe from posterior parietal lobe

13

What are the two large sulci in the brain?

Central Sulcus

Lateral Sulcus

14

The cerebrum has 3 functional principles. what are they?

receives sensory info, sending motor commands

two hemispheres with different functions

correspondence between a specific function and a specific region of cerebral cortex is not precise due to overlap.

15

What is the name of the cells that are neurons of motor cortex that direct voluntary motor controlling?

pyramidal cells

16

Which gyrus is the primary motor cortex?

precentral gyrus

17

The precentral gyrus controls what?

skeletal muscle

18

This area receives somatic sensory information.

Primary sensory cortex

19

What are the four special sensory cortexes?

visual

auditory

olfactory

gustatory

20

These are masses of gray matter embedded in the white matter of the cerebrum.

The basal nuclei

21

These direct subconscious activities.

basal nuclei

22

What is the second largest part of the brain?

cerebellum

23

This coordinates repetitive body movements like walking.

cerebellum

24

The cerebellum is covered with gray matter called what?

cerebellar cortex

25

The surface of the cerebellum is covered in a highly folded neural cortex called what?

folia

26

the anterior and posterior lobes are separated by what?

primary fissure

27

These peduncles link the cerebellum with midbrain, diencephalon, and cerebrum.

superior cerebellar peduncles

28

These peduncles link the cerebellum with sensory and motor nuclei in the pons.

middle cerebellar peduncles

29

These peduncles connect the cerebellum and medulla oblongata and carry ascending, descending tracts from the spinal cord.

inferior cerebellar peduncles

30

What is the arbor vitae?

highly branched internal white matter of the cerebellum

31

what do the cerebellar nuclei embedded in the arbor vitae do?

Relay motor information to Purkinje cells

32

The Diencephalon is made up of what?

Thalamus

Hypothalamus

33

The main job of what is to relay and process sensory information?

Thalamus

34

The hypothalamus is known for controlling what three things?

hormone production

emotions

autonomic function

35

this processes olfactory and other sensory information and contains motor nuclei that control reflex eating movements.

Mamillary bodies

36

The hypothalamus has what three main parts?

Mamillary bodies

Infundibulum

Tuberal area

37

This is a narrow stalk posterior to the optic chiasm and connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.

Infundibulum

38

This is the floor of the hypothalamus, located between the infundibulum and mamillary bodies and helps to control the pituitary gland function.

Tuberal area

39

What are the two main structures of the midbrain?

Tectum (posterior)

tegmentum (anterior)

40

The tectum is made up of two pairs of sensory nuclei. Together, they form the what?

Corpora quadrigemina

41

The corpora quadrigemina is made up of two pairs of sensory nuclei. what are these pairs called?

Superior and inferior colliculus

42

The superior colliculus controls what?

visual reflexes

43

The inferior colliculus controls what?

auditory reflexes

44

This structure links the cerebellum with the midbrain, diencephalon, cerebrum, and spinal cord.

Pons

45

The sensory and motor nuclei of what cranial nerves are found inside the pons?

V, VI, VII, VIII

46

Nuclei in control of respiration are found where?

Pons

47

in the pons, the nuclei that process and relay information send it where?

cerbellum

48

What kinds of tracts does the pons contain?

ascending

descending

transverse

49

This structure coordinates complex autonomic reflexes and visceral functions.

Medulla oblongata