What is the largest system in the body?
the Integumentary System
What are the main cutaneous glands?
Sweat (sudoriferous) glands
What portion of the Integumentary system is avascular?
the top most layer
Where are eccrine sweat glands found?
soles of feet
Where are Apocrine sweat glands found?
what do sebaceous glands secret?
What is the type of Sebaceous glands?
what does sebum contain?
Apocrine glands are found where?
with the hair follical
What are the components of the Cutaneous Membrane?
What are the two main componants of the Cutaneous Membrane?
Skin and accessory structures
What are the accessory structures for the Integumentary system?
Multicellular exocrine glands
In what layer of skin do the blood vessels lie?
What other body system works in close relation to the inegumnentary system?
using pain, touch, and temperature
Give two other names for the Hypodermis.
What is the hypodermis made up of?
loose connective tissue
What is the location of hypodermic injections?
What sweat gland is associcated with hair?
What sweat gland is associated with skin?
This is found in thick skin, not in thin skin.
The skin has 8 major functions. What are they?
Production of Melatin
Production of Karatin
Synthesis of Vitamin D-3
What is the epidermis made of?
What are the main cells of the Epidermis?
What structural protein makes up the hair, skin, and nails?
Where is thin skin located and how many layers of keratinocytes does it have?
over most of the body
Where is thick skin located and how many layers of keratinocytes does it have?
soles of feet
Name the 5 Strata of Keratinocyte layers in thick skin.
Describe the Stratum Corneum (top most layer) of skin.
multiple layers of flat dead interlocking keratinocytes
Water resistant but not water proof
permits slow water loss by presperation
What layer does thick skin have that thin skin doesn't?
Which layer is made up of keratinocytes bound by desmosomes?
What happens in the Stratum granulosum?
produces keratehyalllin and keratin
keratin fibers develop as cells
plasma thickens, killing the organelles and the cell dies
What layer attaches to the basement membrane?
The stratum bassale contains what three kinds of cells?
basal stem cells
Merkle cells (tactile cells)
How thick is the Stratum Bassale?
1 cell layer thick
How does the Stratum bassale layer attach to the basement membrane?
Which layer forms the basis for finger prints and what are they called?
stratum basale layer
Where do you find dermal papillae?
What do dermal papillae do?
increase the area of basement membrane
strengthen the attachment between dermis and epidermis
Whats another name for basal cells and where are they found?
found in the stratum basale
What kind of skin contains merkle cells?
What cells in the stratum basale contain melanin?
What cell layer of the epidermis is known as the "Spiny Layer"?
How is the stratum spinosum layer made?
produced by the division of the stratum basale
The stratum spinosum is made up of how many layers of keratinocytes?
what is the stratum spinosum keratinocytes bound by?
How did the Stratum Spinosum get its nick-name, the spiny layer?
the cells shrink until cytoskeletons stick out
What's another name for the Statum Granulosum?
The "Grainy Layer"
What is Keratin?
a tough, fibrous protein that makes up hair and nails
What is produced in the stratum granulosum?
What is Keratohyalin?
cross linked keratin fibers
What is the cell life like in the stratum granulosum?
produce protein fibers
dehydrate and die
create tightly interlocked layer of kertain surrounded by keratohylin
Another name for the stratum lucidum is what?
the clear layer
The stratum granulosum is covered by what?
the stratum lucidum
What layer is known as the "horn layer"?
About how many layers of keratinized skin is the stratum corneum made up of?
how long does it take for the stratum corneum to shed and be replaced?
Keratinization is what?
the formation of a layer of dead protective cells filled with keratin
where does keratinization occur?
on all exposed skin surfaces except eyes
In the skin life cycle, how long does it take for a cell to move from the stratum basale to stratum corneum?
7 to 10 days
Skin color is influenced by what two pigments?
Carotene and Melanin
What color is carotene?
what color is Melanin?
yellow brown or black
Along with skin, where else can you find carotene?
in orange veggies
Carotene can be converted into what vitamin?
Where does Carotene accumulate?
in epidermal cells and fatty tissues of the dermis
Where is Melanin stored?
in transport vesicles called melanosomes
after being stored, where is melanin transported to?
What is the function of Melanocytes?
protects skin from UV damage
cause DNA mutations and burns that lead to cancer/wrinkles
helps to decide skin color
Skin color is controlled by what?
the production of melanin
Whats another name for moles?
how does a mole develop?
when melanocytes grow in clusters
Most adults have about how many common moles?
are dysplastic nevi always cancerous?
What is the "ABCDE" rule?
description for early melenoma
What does the "ABCDE" rule stand for?
The dermis consists of two layers. what are they?
Outer papillary layer
deep reticular layer
What layer of skin is the anchor for accessory structures?
What kind of tissue is the papillary layer made up of?
What layer of the dermis has dermal papillae projecting between epidermal ridges?
The papillary layer
The Reticular layer of the dermis contains what two big fibers?
Collagen and elastic
what fibers are very strong, resist stretching but bend easily?
What fibers permit stretching and then recoil to their original length and limit the flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent tissue damage?
What lines in the skin establish important patterns?
What kind of cut will remain shut and heal well?
a parallel cut
what kind of cut will most likely scar?
a right angle or cross cut
Where does the Reticular layer get its blood supply from?
The cutaneous plexus
Where does the papillary layer get its blood supply from?
Damage to blood vessels resulting in bruising can happen to what plexus?
Nerve fibers in the skin control what?
Light touch receptors are called what and located where?
Deep pressure and vibration receptors are called what and located where?
The hypodermis is also known as what?
the subcutaneous layer
what is the hypodermis made of?
elastic areolar and adipose tissue
what are the two types of exocrine glands?
What are the two types of sweat glands?
What type of sebaceous gland is associated with hair follicles?
simple branched areolar glands
What kind of sweat glands are found in the armpit, nipples, and groin?
Apocrine glands are surrounded by what kind of cells?
What is another name for eccrine sweat glands?
Eccrine glands main job is to do what?
excrete water and electrolytes
flush microorganisms from skin
Mecrocine (Eccrine) glands are controlled how?
independently and sweating occurs locally
What system controls the sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands?
The autonomic nervous system (ANS)
What areas of the body do NOT have hair?
palms, soles, lips, and portions of external genitalia
what is the function of hair?
sensitive to light touch