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Exercise 27: Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands

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created 4 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 27 pg. 411 - 414 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 4 years ago by jncanf

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1

BOTH THE ENDOCRINE AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS ARE MAJOR REGULATING SYSTEMS OF THE BODY; HOWEVER, THE NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS BEEN COMPARED TO AN AIRMAIL DELIVERY SYSTEM AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM TO THE PONY EXPRESS. BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THIS COMPARISON.

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM EMPLOYS ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPULSES TO BRING ABOUT RAPID CONTROL, WHEREAS THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM IS MORE SLOWLY ACTING WITH HORMONES.

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DEFINE HORMONE.

SUBSTANCE SECRETED BY ENDOCRINE TISSUES INTO THE BLOOD THAT ACTS ON THE TARGET TISSUE TO PRODUCE A SPECIFIC RESPONSE.

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CHEMICALLY, HORMONES BELONG CHIEFLY TO TWO MOLECULAR GROUPS, THE__1__ AND THE __2__.

1. STEROIDS
2. AMINO ACID-BASED

4

DEFINE TARGET ORGAN.

ORGANS THAT RESPOND TO A PARTICULAR HORMONE.

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IF HORMONES TRAVEL IN THE BLOODSTREAM, WHY DONT ALL TISSUES RESPOND TO ALL HORMONES?

ABILITY OF THE TARGET TISSUE TO RESPOND DEPENDS ON THE ABILITY OF THE HORMONE TO BIND WITH SPECIFIC RECEPTORS (PROTEINS) ON CELLS PLASMA MEMBRANE OR WITHIN THE CELL.

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LOCATED IN THE THROAT; BILOBED GLAND CONNECTED BY AN ISTHMUS

THYROID GLAND

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FOUND CLOSE TO THE KIDNEY

ADRENAL GLANDS

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A MIXED GLAND, LOCATED CLOSE TO THE STOMACH AND SMALL INTESTINE

PANCREAS

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PAIRED GLANDS SUSPENDED IN THE SCROTUM

TESTES

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RIDE "HORSEBACK" ON THE THYROID GLAND

PARATHYROID GLAND

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FOUND IN THE PELVIC CAVITY OF THE FEMALE, CONCERNED WITH OVA AND FEMALE HORMONE PRODUCTION

OVARY (F. GONADS)

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FOUND IN THE UPPER THORAX OVERLYING THE HEART; LARGE DURING YOUTH

THYMUS

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FOUND IN THE ROOF OF THE THRID VENTRICLE

PINEAL GLAND

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REGULATE THE FUNCTION OF ANOTHER ENDOCRINE GLAND

HORMONE(S): FSH, LH, ACH, TSH
GLAND(S): ANTERIOR PITUITARY

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MAINTENANCE OF SALT AND WATER BALANCE IN THE EXTRACELLULAR FLUID

HORMONE(S): ADH, ALDOSTERONE
GLAND(S): ADH- POSTERIOR PITUITARY, ALDOSTERONE- ADRENAL CORTEX

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DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN MILK PRODUCTION AND EJECTION

HORMONE(S): PROLACTIN, OXYTOCIN
GLAND(S): PROLACTIN- ANTERIOR PITUITARY, OXYTOCIN - POSTERIOR PITUITARY

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CONTROLS THE RATE OF BODY METABOLISM AND CELLULAR OXIDATION

HORMONE(S): T3/T4
GLAND(S): T3/T4- THYROID GLAND

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REGULATE BLOOD CALCIUM LEVELS

HORMONE(S): CALCITONIN, PTH
GLAND(S): CALCITONIN- THROID GLAND, PTH- PARATHYROID GLANDS

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REGULATE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS; PRODUCED BY THE SAME "MIXED" GLAND

HORMONE(S): INSULIN, GLUCAGON
GLAND(S): PANCREAS

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RELEASED IN RESPONSE TO STRESSORS

HORMONE(S): CORTISOL, EPINEPHRINE
GLAND(S): CORTISOL- ADRENAL CORTEX, EPINEPHRINE- ADRENAL MEDULLA

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DRIVE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS IN MALES

HORMONE(S): TESTOSTERONE
GLAND(S): TESTES

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DIRECTLY RESPONSIBLE FOR REGULATION OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE

HORMONE(S): ESTROGENS, PROGESTERONE
GLAND(S): OVARIES

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ALTHOUGH THE PITUITARY GLAND IS OFTEN REFERRED TO AS THE MASTER GLAND OF THE BODY, THE HYPOTHALAMUS EXERTS SOME CONTROL OVER THE PITUITARY GLAND. HOW DOES THE HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROL BOTH ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR PITUITARY FUNCTIONING?

1. HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS ANTERIOR PIT. FUNCTIONING BY NEURO SECRETIONS. THESE HORMONES ARE LIBERATED INTO HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM AND CARRIED TO CELLS OF ANT. PITUITARY (LOBE) WHERE THEY CONTROL THE RELEASE OF ANTERIOR PIT. HORMONES.
2. HYPOTHALAMUS CONTROLS POST. PITUITARY FUNCTIONING BY SENDING TWO HORMONES FOR STORAGE TO THE POST. PIT. (LOBE). HORMONES TRANSPORTED TO IT VIA THE AXONS OF NEURONS IN THE PARAVENTRICULAR AND SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEI OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS

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25

ACTH IS STIMULATED BY

ANOTHER HORMONE

26

CALCITONIN IS STIMULATED BY

HUMORAL FACTORS (THE CONCENTRATION OF SPECIFIC NONHORMONAL SUBSTANCES IN THE BLOOD OR EXTRACELLULAR FLUID)

27

ESTROGENS ARE STIMULATED BY

ANOTHER HORMONE

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INSULIN IS STIMULATED BY

HUMORAL FACTORS (THE CONCENTRATION OF SPECIFIC NONHORMONAL SUBSTANCES IN THE BLOOD OR EXTRACELLULAR FLUID)

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NOREPINEPHRINE IS STIMULATED BY

THE NERVOUS SYSTEM (NEUROTRANSMITTERS, OR NEUROSECRETIONS)

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PARATHYROID HORMONE IS STIMULATED BY

HUMORAL FACTORS (THE CONCENTRATION OF SPECIFIC NONHORMONAL SUBSTANCES IN THE BLOOD OR EXTRACELLULAR FLUID)

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T3/T4 IS STIMULATED BY

ANOTHER HORMONE

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TESTOSTERONE IS STIMULATED BY

ANOTHER HORMONE

33

TSH, FSH IS STIMULATED BY

ANOTHER HORMONE

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NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN ANADEQUATE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: TETANY

PTH - PARATHYROID HORMONE

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NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN ANADEQUATE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: EXCESSIVE DIURESIS WITHOUT HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS

ADH - ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

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NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN ANADEQUATE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: LOSS OF GLUCOSE IN THE URINE

INSULIN

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NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN ANADEQUATE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: ABNORMALLY SMALL STATURE, NORMAL PROPORTIONS

GH - GROWTH HORMONE

38

NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN ANADEQUATE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: LOW BMR, MENTAL AND PHYSICAL SLUGGISHNESS

T4- THYROXINE, T3- TRIIODOTHYRONINE, THYROID HORMONES

39

NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: LARGE HANDS AND FEET IN ADULT, LARGE FACIAL BONES

GH- GROWTH HORMONE

40

NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: NERVOUSNESS, IRREGULAR PULSE RATE, SWEATING

T4/T3 - THYROID HORMONES

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NAME THE HORMONE(S) PRODUCED IN EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS THAT DIRECTLY RESULT IN THE FOLLOWING CONDITION: DEMINERALIZATION OF BONES, SPONTANEOUS FRACTURES

PTH- PARATHYROID HORMONE

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PARAFOLLICULAR CELLS OF THE THYROID

CALCITONIN

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FOLLICULAR EPITHELIAL CELLS OF THE THYROID

T4/T3

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BETA CELLS OF THE PANCREATIC ISLETS (ISLETS OF LANGERHANS)

INSULIN

45

ALPHA CELLS OF THE PANCREATIC ISLETS (ISLETS OF LANGERHANS)

GLUCAGON

46

BASOPHIL CELLS OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY

TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH

47

ZONA FASCICULATA CELLS

GLUCOCORTICOIDS

48

ZONA GLOMERULOSA CELLS

MINERALOCORTICOIDS

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CHIEF CELLS OF THE PARATHYROID

PTH

50

ACIDOPHIL CELLS OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY

GH, PROLACTIN

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DIAGRAM OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLAND ARE PRESENT HERE. IDENTIFY AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY THE LEADER LINE OR BRACKET.

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DIAGRAM OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLAND ARE PRESENT HERE. IDENTIFY AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY THE LEADER LINE OR BRACKET.

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DIAGRAM OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLAND ARE PRESENT HERE. IDENTIFY AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY THE LEADER LINE OR BRACKET.

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DIAGRAM OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLAND ARE PRESENT HERE. IDENTIFY AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY THE LEADER LINE OR BRACKET.

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DIAGRAM OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLAND ARE PRESENT HERE. IDENTIFY AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY THE LEADER LINE OR BRACKET.

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DIAGRAM OF THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE ENDOCRINE GLAND ARE PRESENT HERE. IDENTIFY AND NAME ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY THE LEADER LINE OR BRACKET.

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