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Exercise 26: Special Senses - Olfaction and Taste

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created 4 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 26 pg. 403 - 404 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 4 years ago by jncanf

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College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year

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1

DESCRIBE THE LOCATION AND CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF THE OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM.

LOCATION: AREA OF ABOUT 5 cm2 IN ROOF OF NASAL CAVITY. CELLULAR COMPOSITION OF OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM IS MADE UP OF APPROXIMATELY 10 MILLION OLFACTORY NEURONS, AND AXONS OF THESE BIPOLAR NEURONS.

2

HOW AND WHY DOES SNIFFING IMPROVE YOUR SENSE OF SMELL?

SINCE IT'S IN THE ROOF OF THE NASAL CAVITY SNIFFINF AND BRINGING IN MORE AIR INTO CONTACT WITH RECEPTORS, INTENSIFIES THE SENSE OF SMELL, WHICH IMPROVES IT.

3

NAME FINE SITES WHERE RECEPTORS FOR TASTE ARE FOUND, AND CIRCLE THE PREDOMINANT SITE.

SOFT PALATE, EPIGLOTTIS, PHARYNX, INNER SURFACE OF CHEEKS, PAPILLAE (THIS ONE IS CIRCLED)

4

DESCRIBE THE CELLULAR MAKEUP AND ARRANGEMENT OF A TASTE BUD.

CELLULAR MAKEUP OF A TASTE BUD CONSISTS OF THREE MAJOR TYPES OF SPECIALIZED EPITHELIAL CELLS: GUSTATORY CELLS, BASAL CELLS, AND SUPPORTING CELLS. ARRANGMENTS ARE: 1. V-SHAPE ROW ON BORDER BETWEEN ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR PART OF TONGUE (VALLATE PAP.) 2. ON FOLDS ON SIDES OF TONGUE (FOLLATE PAP.) 3. SCATTERED IRREGULARLY OVER ENTIRE SURFACE OF TONGUE (FUNGIFORM PAP.)

5

TASTE AND SMELL RECEPTORS ARE BOTH CLASSIFIED AS __1__, BECAUSE THEY BOTH RESPOND TO __2__.

1. CHEMORECEPTORS
2. CHEMICALS IN SOLUTION

6

WHY IS IT IMPOSSIBLE TO TASTE SUBSTANCES WITH A DRY TONGUE?

BECAUSE TASTANTS DISSOLVE IN SALIVA, ENTERS THE TASTE PORES, THIS CAUSES MECHANISMS TO MAKE THE TASTE CELLS TO DEPOLARIZE, THIS HELPS START THE WAY WE PROCESS TASTE. WITHOUT SALIVA THE BEGINNING STEPS OF TASTE WILL NOT BE ACTIVATED.

7

THE BASIC TASTE SENSATIONS ARE MEDIATED BY SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES OR GROUPS. NAME THEM FOR THE FOLLOWING TASTE MODALITIES.

1. SALT: METAL IONS
2. BITTER: ALKALOIDS, GUSTDUCIN
3. SOUR: HYDROGEN IONS, BLOCKING K+ OR Na+ CHANNELS
4. SWEET: SUGARS, SACCHARINE, LEAD SALTS, AMINO ACIDS, GUSTDUCIN
5. UMAMI: AMINO ACID GLUTAMATE, GUSTDUCIN

8

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9

NAME THREE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE OUR APPRECIATION OF FOODS. SUBSTANTIATE EACH CHOICE WITH AN EXAMPLE FROM THE LABORATORY EXPERIENCE.

1. SMELL. SUBSTANTIATION: WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO SMELL WE CANT TASTE SO SMELL WOULD DEFINITELY INFLUENCE OUR APPRECIATION.
2. TASTE. SUBSTANTIATION: IF WE COULDN'T TASTE WE WOULDNT KNOW WHAT TASTE GOOD OR BAD, SO TASTE IS A MAJOR SOURCE OF APPRECIATION.
3. TEXTURE. SUBSTANTIATION: TEXTURE HELPS WITH THE PERCEPTION OF TASTE. THIS HELPS WITH SENSORY INFORMATION OF WHAT WE ARE EATING.

10

WHICH OF THE FACTORS CHOSEN IS MOST IMPORTANT? SUBSTANTIATE YOUR CHOICE WITH AN EXAMPLE FROM EVERYDAY LIFE.

SMELL; WE SMELL FOOD EVEN BEFORE WE SEE IT OR TASTE IT. WE ARE ATTRACTED TO THE SMELL MAKING US WANT TO EAT SOMETHING EVEN IF WE ARE NOT HUNGRY.

11

EXPAND ON YOUR EXPLANATION AND CHOICES BY EXPLAINING WHY A COLD, GREASY HAMBURGER IS UNAPPETIZING TO MOST PEOPLE.

FIRST BECAUSE IT IS COLD, THIS CAN INTERFERE WITH THE TEASTE BUDS ABIITY TO FUNCTION, WONT BE AS GOOD AS A WARM/HOT BURGER. WITHOUT BEING ABLE TO TASTE IT, YOU WILL FEEL JUST COLDNESS IN YOUR MOUTH. SECONDLY, THE COLD GREASE CAN NOT BE READILY DISSOLVED SO IT IS UNAPPETIZING. ALSO THE COLD GREASY TEXTURE DOES NOT FEEL GOOD ON YOUR TONGUE.

12

HOW PALATABLE IS FOOD WHEN YOU HAVE A COLD? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER.

NOT ACCEPTABLE (BAD); WITH OLFACTION BLOCKED, IT IS DIFFICULT TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIFFERENT TASTES, SO WHEN YOU HAVE A COLD YOU HAVE A REDUCED SENSATION OF TASTE.

13

IN YOUR OPINION, IS OLFACTORY ADAPTATION DESIRABLE? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER

YES IT IS; BECAUSE IF I HAD TO PUT UP WITH A HORRIBLE SMELL FOR A LONG-PERIOD OF TIME I WANT TO BE ABLE TO ADAPT TO IT BEFORE I BECOME SICK AND BEGIN TO GAG. OR WITH ANY BAD SMELLS AROUND ME.