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Exercise 25: Special Senses - Hearing and Equilibrium

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created 4 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 25 pg.393-396 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 4 years ago by jncanf

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1

STRUCTURE COMPOSING THE EXTERNAL EAR

PINNA (AURICLE), EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL, TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

2

STRUCTURES COMPOSING THE INTERNAL EAR

COCHLEA, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS, VESTIBULE

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COLLECTIVELY CALLED THE OSSICLES

INCUS (ANVIL), MALLEUS (HAMMER), STAPES (STIRRUP)

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INVOLVED IN EQUALIZING THE PRESSURE IN THE MIDDLE EAR WITH ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

PHARYNGOTYMPANIC (AUDITORY) TUBE

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VIBRATES AT THE SAME FREQUENCY AS SOUND WAVES HITTING IT; TRANSMITS THE VIBRATIONS TO THE OSSICLES

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

6

CONTAIN RECEPTORS FOR THE SENSE OF BALANCE

VESTIBULE, SEMICIRCULAR CANALS

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TRANSMITS THE VIBRATORY MOTION OF THE STIRRUP TO THE FLUID IN THE SCALA VESTIBULI OF THE INNER EAR

OVAL WINDOW

8

ACTS AS A PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE FOR THE INCREASED FLUID PRESSURE IN THE SCALA TYMPANI; BULGES INTO THE TYMPANIC CAVITY

ROUND WINDOW

9

PASSAGE BETWEEN THE THROAT AND THE TYMPANIC CAVITY

PHARYNGOTYMPANIC (AUDITORY) TUBE

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FLUID CONTAINED WITHIN THE MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH

ENDOLYMPH

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FLUID CONTAINED WITHIN THE OSSEOUS LABYRINTH AND BATHING THE MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH

PERILYMPH

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14

SACS FOUND WITHIN THE VESTIBULE

UTRICLE, SACCULE

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CONTAINS HE SPIRAL ORGAN (OF CORTI)

COCHLEAR DUCT

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SITES OF THE MACULAE

UTRICLE, SACCULE

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POSITIONED IN ALL SPATIAL PLANES

SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS

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HAIR CELLS OF SPIRAL ORGAN (OF CORTI) REST ON THIS MEMBRANE

BASILAR MEMBRANE

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GELATINOUS MEMBRANE OVERLYING THE HAIR CELLS OF THE SPIRAL ORGAN (OF CORTI)

TECTORIAL MEMBRANE

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CONTAINS THE CRISTA AMPULLARIS

AMPULLA

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FUNCTION IN STATIC EQUILIBRIUM

SACCULE, VESTIBULAR NERVE, OTOLITHS

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FUNCTION IN DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM

AMPULLA, UTRICLE, CAPULA, VESTIBULAR NERVE

23

CARRIES AUDITORY INFORMATION TO THE BRAIN

COCHLEAR NERVE

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GELATINOUS CAP OVERLYING HAIR CELLS OF THE CRISTA AMPULLARIS

CAPULA

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GRAINS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE IN THE MACULAE

OTOLITHS

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SOUND WAVES HITTING THE TYMPANIC MEMBRANE (EARDRUM) INITIATE ITS VIBRATORY MOTION. TRACE THE PATHWAY THROUGH WHICH VIBRATIONS AND FLUID CURRENTS ARE TRANSMITTED TO FINALLY STIMULATE THE HAIR CELLS IN THE SPIRAL ORGAN (OF CORTI).(NAME THE APPROPRIATE EAR STRUCTURES IN THEIR CORRECT SEQUENCE.)

TYMPANIC MEMBRANE -> MALLEUS -> INCUS -> STAPES -> OVAL WINDOW -> PERILYMPH -> VESTIBULAR MEMBRANE -> ENDOLYMPH -> HAIR CELL OF THE ORGAN OF CORTI.

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DESCRIBE HOW SOUNDS OF DIFFERENT FREQUENCY (PITCH) ARE DIFFERENTIATED IN THE COCHLEA.

THE FREQUENCY IS DIFFERENTIATED BY THE LENGTH AND TENSION OF THE BASILAR MEMBRANE FIBERS. HIGH PITCH SOUNDS MAKE IT CLOSE TO OVAL WINDOW, LOW PITCH ARE FURTHER UP BASILAR MEMBRANE NEAR APEX OF COCHLEA. IT DEPENDS ALOT ON THE STRENGTH OF THE VIBRATION OF THE FLUID STIMULATING THE HAIR CELLS.

28

EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF THE ENDOLYMPH OF THE SEMICIRCULAR CANALS IN ACTIVATING THE RECEPTORS DURING ANGULAR MOTION.

ENDOLYMPH PUSHES CAPULA IN DIRECTION OPPOSITE TO THAT OF ANGULAR MOTION. THIS MOVEMENT DEPOLARIZES HAIR CELLS, RESULTING IN IMPULSE TRANSMISSION UP VESTIBULAR DIVISION OF CRANIAL NERVE VIII (8) TO THE BRAIN.

29

EXPLAIN THE ROLE OF THE OTOLITHS IN PERCEPTION OF STATIC EQUILIBRIUM (HEAD POSITION)

WHEN THE HEAD MOVES, OTOLITHS MOVE IN RESPONSE TO VARIATION IN GRAVITATIONAL PULL. AS THEY DEFLECT DIFFERENT HAIR CELLS, THEY HYPERPOLARIZE OR DEPOLARIZE HAIR CELLS AND MODIFY THE RATE OF IMPULSE TRANSMISSION ALONG VESTIBULAR NERVE.

30

WHEN THE TUNING FORK HANDLE WAS PRESSED ON YOUR FOREHEAD DURING THE WEBER TEST, WHERE DID THE SOUND SEEM TO ORIGINATE?

FROM THE SIDES OF THE TEMPLES

31

WHERE DID IT SEEM TO ORIGINATE WHEN ONE EAR WAS PLUGGED WITH COTTON?

SOUND WILL BE HEARD BETTER IN THE PLUGGED EAR BECAUSE THE UNPLUGGED EAR WILL BE SUBJECTED TO COMPETING NOISES FROM WHICH THE PLUGGED EAR IS SPARED

32

HOW DO SOUND WAVES REACH THE COCHLEA WHEN CONDUCTION DEAFNESS IS PRESENT?

THE COCHLEA IS FILLED WITH A LIQUID, WHICH MOVES IN RESPONSE TO THE VIBRATIONS COMING FROM THE MIDDLE SO IT FEELS THE VIBRATIONS

33

CAN RESULT FROM THE FUSION OF THE OSSICLES

CONDUCTION DEAFNESS

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CAN RESULT FROM A LESION ON THE COCHLEAR NERVE

SENSORINEURAL DEAFNESS

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SOUND HEARD IN ONE EAR BUT NOT IN THE OTHER DURING BONE AND AIR CONDUCTION

SENSORINEURAL DEAFNESS

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CAN RESULT FROM OTITIS MEDIA

SENSORINEURAL DEAFNESS, CONDUCTION DEAFNESS

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CAN RESULT FROM IMPACTED CERUMEN OR A PERFORATED EARDRUM

CONDUCTION DEAFNESS

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CAN RESULT FROMA BLOOD CLOT IN THE AUDITORY CORTEX

SENSORINEURAL DEAFNESS

39

THE RINNE TEST EVALUATES AN INDIVIDUALS ABILITY TO HEAR SOUNDS CONDUCTED BY AIR OR BONE. WHICH IS MORE INDICATIVE OF NORMAL HEARING?

BONE

40

DEFINE NYSTAGMUS

THE INVOLUNTARY ROLLING OF THE EYES IN ANY DIRECTION OR THE TRAILING OF THE EYES SLOWLY IN ONE DIRECTION, FOLLOWED BY RAPID MOVEMENT IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION

41

DEFINE VERTIGO

SENSATION OF DIZZINESS AND ROTATIONAL MOVEMENT WHEN SUCH MOVEMENT IS NOT OCCURING OR HAS CEASED.

42

THE BARANY TEST INVESTIGATED THE EFFECT THAT ROTATORY ACCELERATION HAD ON THE SEMICIRCULAR CANCALS. EXPLAIN WHY THE SUBJECT STILL HAD THE SENSATION OF ROTATION IMMEDIATELY AFTER BEING STOPPED.

SUBJECT HAD A VIRAL LABYRINTHRINE DISORDER

43

WHAT IS THE USUAL REASON FOR CONDUCTING THE ROMBERG TEST?

TO DETERMINE OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE IMPULSES ARE BEING TRANSMITTED UP THE SPINAL CORD TO THE BRAIN PROPERLY

44

WAS THE DEGREE OF SWAY GREATER WITH THE EYES OPEN OR CLOSED? WHY?

CLOSED; YOU LOSE VISUAL REFERENCE POINTS

45

NORMAL BALANCE, OR EQUILIBRIUM, DEPENDS ON INPUT FROM A NUMBER OF SENSORY RECEPTORS. NAME THEM

VESTIBULAR RECEPTORS, VISUAL RECEPTORS, SOMATIC RECEPTORS

46

WHAT EFFECT DOES ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION HAVE ON BALANCE AND EQUILIBRIUM? EXPLAIN

ALCOHOL DEPRESSES THE NEURONS AND ENHANCES THE INHIBITION OF COORDINATION AND CAUSES A LOSS OF EQUILIBRIUM REFLEXES