Urinary SYstem

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1) Glomerulus.

2) Afferent arteriole.

3) Collecting duct.

4) Loop of Henle.

5) Peritubular capillaries.

6) Structue most closely associated with granular cells.

7) Medulla of the kidney.

1) C

2) A

3) B

4) E

5) D

6) A

7) E

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8) Podocyte

9) Is composed of simple squamous epithelium.

10) Collecting duct cells.

11) Proximal convoluted tubule cells.

8.B

9. A

10. C

11. E

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12) Filtrate at the site of these cells is about the same osmolarity as blood plasma.

14) Cells that reabsorb virtually all the nutrients.

15) Cells that are most affected by ADH.

16) Almost no water is absorbed in these cells.

12. E

13. E

14. E

15. A

16. C

4

17) Proximal convoluted tubule.

A) Site that drains the distal
convoluted tubule.
B) Site of filtrate formation.
C) Blood supply that directly
receives substances from the
tubular cells.
D) Receives venous blood from the
cortical radiate vein.
E) Site at which most of the tubular
reabsorption occurs.

17) E

5

18) Glomerulus.

A) Site that drains the distal
convoluted tubule.
B) Site of filtrate formation.
C) Blood supply that directly
receives substances from the
tubular cells.
D) Receives venous blood from the
cortical radiate vein.
E) Site at which most of the tubular
reabsorption occurs.

18) B

6

19) Peritubular capillaries.

A) Site that drains the distal
convoluted tubule.
B) Site of filtrate formation.
C) Blood supply that directly
receives substances from the
tubular cells.
D) Receives venous blood from the
cortical radiate vein.
E) Site at which most of the tubular
reabsorption occurs.

19) C

7

20) Collecting duct.

A) Site that drains the distal
convoluted tubule.
B) Site of filtrate formation.
C) Blood supply that directly
receives substances from the
tubular cells.
D) Receives venous blood from the
cortical radiate vein.
E) Site at which most of the tubular
reabsorption occurs.

20) A

8

21) Arcuate vein.

A) Site that drains the distal
convoluted tubule.
B) Site of filtrate formation.
C) Blood supply that directly
receives substances from the
tubular cells.
D) Receives venous blood from the
cortical radiate vein.
E) Site at which most of the tubular
reabsorption occurs.

21) D

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1) The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the
permeability properties of the ________.

A) loop of Henle

10

2) Urine passes through the ________.

B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

11

3) Which of the following is associated with the renal corpuscle?
A) a podocyte

B) a vasa recta
C) a fenestrated capillary

D) an efferent arteriole

B) a vasa recta

12

4) An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to ________.

B) an increase in the production of ADH

13

5) The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.

A) transitional

14

6) The kidneys are stimulated to produce renin ________.

C) by a decrease in the blood pressure

15

7) Blood vessels of the renal columns are called ________.

C) interlobar

16

8) Which gland sits atop each kidney?

A) adrenal

17

9) The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.

B) arcuate

18

10) The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.

C) is drained by an efferent arteriole

19

11) The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.

D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

20

12) Select the correct statement about the ureters.

A) Ureters contain sphincters at the entrance to the bladder to prevent the backflow of urine.
B) The epithelium is stratified squamous like the skin, which allows a great deal of stretch.
C) The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
D) The ureter is innervated by parasympathetic nerve endings only.

C) The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.

21

13) The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because ________.

B) it stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

B) it stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

22

14) The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.

A) Bowmans capsule and glomerulus

A) Bowmans capsule and glomerulus

23

15) The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is ________.

A) the nephron

A) the nephron

24

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is responsible

D) regulating the rate of filtrate formation and controlling systemic blood pressure

25

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because ________.

it stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

26

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is ________.

A) the nephron

27

17) The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is
________.

C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

28

18) Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
A) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
B) They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
C) They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
D) They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to
transport urine efficiently.

A) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia)

29

19) The first major branch of the renal artery is ________.
A) arcuate B) interlobular
C) segmental D) cortical radiate

segmental

30

20) Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
A) The stretching of the bladder wall serves as the trigger.
B) Motor neurons control micturition.
C)The pressure of the fluid in the bladder opens a sphincter and allows the urine to flow by
gravity down the urethra.
D) The sympathetic efferents are the predominant system controlling micturition.

A) The stretching of the bladder wall serves as the trigger

31

21) The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
A) glomerular endothelium B) podocytes
C) renal fascia D) basement membrane

C) renal fascia

32

22) The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
A) active transport B) osmosis
C) solvent drag D) cotransport with sodium ions

B) osmosis

33

23) Most electrolyte reabsorption by the renal tubules ________.
A) is not Tm limited
B) is in the distal convoluted tubule
C) is hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments
D) is completed by the time the loop of Henle is reached

C) is hormonally controlled in distal tubule segments

34

24) The macula densa cells respond to ________.
A) aldosterone B) antidiuretic hormone
C) changes in pressure in the tubule D) changes in solute content of the filtrate

D) changes in solute content of the filtrate

35

25) Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
A) Na+ B) K+ C) glucose D) creatinine

D) creatinine

36

26) The fluid in the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule is similar to plasma except that it does not
contain a significant amount of ________.
A) glucose B) hormones
C) electrolytes D) plasma protein

D) plasma protein

37

27) Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
A) is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
B) increases the rate of glomerular filtration
C) increases secretion of ADH
D) inhibits the release of ADH

D) inhibits the release of ADH

38

28) The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A)constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
B) decrease the production of aldosterone
C) decrease arterial blood pressure
D) decrease water absorption

A)constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

39

29) A disease caused by inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by the pituitary
gland with symptoms of polyuria is ________.
A) diabetes mellitus B) diabetes insipidus
C) diabetic acidosis D) coma

B) diabetes insipidus

40

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
A) 1.041-1.073 B) 1.001-1.035 C) 1.030-1.040 D) 1.000-1.015

B) 1.001-1.035

41

31) Place the following in correct sequence from the formation of a drop of urine to its elimination
from the body.
1. major calyx
2. minor calyx
3. nephron
4. urethra
5. ureter
6. collecting duct
A) 3, 1, 2, 6, 5, 4 B) 6, 3, 2, 1, 5, 4 C) 2, 1, 3, 6, 5, 4 D) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

D) 3, 6, 2, 1, 5, 4

3. nephron, 6. collecting duct, 2. minor calyx,

1. major calyx, 5. ureter, 4. urethra

42

32) Select the correct statement about the nephrons.
A) The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.
B) The glomerulus is correctly described as the proximal end of the proximal convoluted
tubule.
C) Podocytes are the branching epithelial cells that line the tubules of the nephron.
D) Filtration slits are the pores that give fenestrated capillaries their name.

A) The parietal layer of the glomerular capsule is simple squamous epithelium.

43

34) Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) granular cells B) macula densa
C) podocyte cells D) mesangial cells

C) podocyte cells

44

35) Tubular reabsorption ________.
A) includes substances such as creatinine
B) by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical
gradient
C) by passive processes requires ATP to move solutes from the interior of the tubule to the
blood
D) is a way for the body to get rid of unwanted waste

B) by active mechanisms usually involves movement against an electrical and/or chemical
gradient

45

36) Which statement is true about urine?
A) Urine is usually slightly alkaline.
B) Urine has an ammonialike odor when fresh.
C) Urine has nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid.
D) Urine has a yellow color due to the presence of hemoglobin

C) Urine has nitrogenous waste such as urea and uric acid

46

37) Reabsorption of high levels of glucose and amino acids in the filtrate is accomplished by
________.
A) facilitated diffusion B) passive transport
C) countertransport D) secondary active transport

D) secondary active transport

47

38) While the kidneys process about 180 L of blood-derived fluids daily, the amount that actually
leaves the body is ________.
A) 50%, or 90 L B) all of the 180 L C) 1%, or 1.8 L D) 100 L

C) 1%, or 1.8 L

48

39) Fetal kidneys do not have to work very hard because ________.
A) fetuses do not have any waste to excrete
B) there are no functional nephrons until after birth
C) the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood
D) there is no way a fetus could excrete urine until the seventh month of development

C) the placenta allows the mother's urinary system to clear the waste from fetal blood

49

40) Which of the following best describes kidney function in older adults (70 years or older)?

A) Kidney function remains the same throughout life, regardless of age.
B) Only about 3% of older adults have any loss of kidney function.
C) Only obese and diabetic older adults have any kidney dysfunction.
D) Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

D) Kidney function decreases due to kidney atrophy.

50

41) The factor favoring filtrate formation at the glomerulus is ________.
A) the colloid osmotic pressure of the blood
B) the glomerular hydrostatic pressure
C) the capsular hydrostatic pressure
D) the myogenic mechanism

B) the glomerular hydrostatic pressure

51

42) If the Tm for a particular amino acid is 120 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid
in the blood is 230 mg/100 ml, the amino acid ________.
A) will be actively secreted into the filtrate
B) will be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells
C) will appear in the urine
D) will be reabsorbed by secondary active transport

C) will appear in the urine

52

43) If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
A) The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
B) Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted
tubules.
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
D) The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.

C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

53

44) Excretion of dilute urine requires ________.
A) relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
C) transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
D) the presence of ADH

B) impermeability of the collecting tubule to water

54

45) As the renal artery approaches the kidney, it branches to supply the renal tissue. Place the
following in correct sequence starting from the renal artery.
1. segmental
2. cortical radiate
3. arcuate
4. interlobar

A) 1, 4, 3, 2

1. segmental

4. interlobar

3. arcuate

2. cortical radiate

55

46) In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle ________.
A) the thin segment is freely permeable to water
B) the thick segment is permeable to water
C) the thin segment is not permeable to sodium and chloride
D) the thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

D) the thick segment moves ions out into interstitial spaces for reabsorption

56

47) Select the correct statement about urinary system development.
A) Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.
B) The metanephric ducts will become the urethras.
C) The pronephros (first tubule system) develops during the tenth week of gestation.
D) The mesonephros will develop into the kidneys.

A) Kidneys develop from urogenital ridges.

57

48) The disruption in homeostasis known as pyelitis is ________.
A) a virus that appears only in children because of poor hygiene
B) the aftermath of a severe upper respiratory infection
C) an infection of the renal pelvis and calyces
D) more prevalent in the elderly

C) an infection of the renal pelvis and calyces

58

49) Which statement is correct?
A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.
B) Normal filtrate contains a large amount of protein.
C) Most of the water passing through the kidney is eliminated as urine.
D) The excretion of sodium ions is one of the mechanisms that maintains the pH balance of
the blood.

A) Reabsorption of water is hormonally controlled.