Campbell Biology 10th edition Chapter 13

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1

1) If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly desirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to establishing a line of such plants?

A) Backtrack through her previous experiments to obtain another plant with the same traits.

B) Breed this plant with another plant with much weaker traits.

C) Clone the plant.

D) Force the plant to self-pollinate to obtain an identical one.

C) Clone the plant.

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2) Which of the following defines a genome?

A) the complete set of an organism's polypeptides

B) the complete set of a species' polypeptides

C) a karyotype

D) the complete set of an organism's genes and other DNA sequences

D) the complete set of an organism's genes and other DNA sequences

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3) Asexual reproduction occurs during _____.

A) meiosis

B) mitosis

C) fertilization

D) chromosome exchange between organisms of different species

B) mitosis

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4) Quaking aspen can send out underground stems for asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is not as common, but when it does happen, the haploid gametes have 19 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the cells of the underground stems?

A) 9

B) 10

C) 19

D) 38

D) 38

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5) Which of the following is a true statement about sexual vs. asexual reproduction?

A) Asexual reproduction, but not sexual reproduction, is characteristic of plants and fungi.

B) In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit half of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring.

C) In asexual reproduction, offspring are produced by fertilization without meiosis.

D) Asexual reproduction produces only haploid offspring.

B) In sexual reproduction, individuals transmit half of their nuclear genes to each of their offspring.

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6) At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?

A) prophase

B) metaphase

C) anaphase

D) interphase

B) metaphase

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7) Which of the following is true of a species that has a chromosome number of 2n = 16?

A) The species is diploid with 32 chromosomes per cell.

B) The species has 16 sets of chromosomes per cell.

C) Each diploid cell has eight homologous pairs.

D) A gamete from this species has four chromosomes.

C) Each diploid cell has eight homologous pairs.

8

8) Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?

I. Alternation of generations

II. Meiosis

III. Fertilization

IV. Gametes

V. Spores

A) I, II, and IV

B) II, III, and IV

C) II, IV, and V

D) I, II, III, IV, and V

B) II, III, and IV

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9) In a plant's sexual life cycle _____.

A) sporophytes produce gametes by meiosis

B) gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis

C) gametophytes produce gametes by meiosis

D) sporophytes produce gametes by mitosis

B) gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis

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10) Which of the following is an example of alternation of generations?

A) A grandparent and grandchild each have dark hair, but the parent has blond hair.

B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).

C) A diploid animal produces gametes by meiosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization to produce a diploid zygote.

D) A haploid mushroom produces gametes by mitosis, and the gametes undergo fertilization, which is immediately followed by meiosis.

B) A diploid plant (sporophyte) produces, by meiosis, a spore that gives rise to a multicellular, haploid pollen grain (gametophyte).

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11) A given organism has 46 chromosomes in its karyotype. Therefore, we can conclude that it must _____.

A) be human

B) be an animal

C) reproduce sexually

D) have gametes with 23 chromosomes

D) have gametes with 23 chromosomes

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12) A triploid cell contains sets of three homologous chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following?

A) 63 chromosomes in pairs

B) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3

C) 63 chromosomes, each with three chromatids

D) 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes

B) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3

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13) Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45 chromosomes?

A) an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase

B) failure of the egg nucleus to be fertilized by the sperm

C) failure of an egg to complete meiosis II

D) incomplete cytokinesis during spermatogenesis after meiosis I

A) an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase

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14) In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common?

A) length and position of the centromere only

B) length, centromere position, and staining pattern only

C) length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes

D) They have nothing in common except that they are X-shaped.

C) length, centromere position, staining pattern, and traits coded for by their genes

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Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure to answer the following question:

15) Which of the life cycles is typical for animals?

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) I and III

A) I only

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Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure to answer the following question:

16) Which of the life cycles is typical for plants and some algae?

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) I and III

C) III only

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Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure to answer the following question:

17) Which of the life cycles is typical for most fungi and some protists?

A) I only

B) II only

C) III only

D) I and II

B) II only

18
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Refer to the life cycles illustrated in the figure to answer the following question:

18) In a life cycle such as that shown in part III of the figure above, if the zygote's chromosome number is 10, which of the following will be true?

A) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.

B) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 5 and the gametophyte's is 10.

C) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 10 chromosomes per cell.

D) The sporophyte and gametophyte each have 5 chromosomes per cell.

A) The sporophyte's chromosome number per cell is 10 and the gametophyte's is 5.

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19) Homologous chromosomes _____.

A) are identical

B) carry information for the same traits

C) carry the same alleles

D) align on the metaphase plate in meiosis II

B) carry information for the same traits

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20) If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for those organisms that spend most of their life cycle in the diploid state?

A) DNA replication

B) reverse transcription

C) synapsis

D) fertilization

D) fertilization

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21) The human X and Y chromosomes _____.

A) are both present in every somatic cell of males and females

B) are the same size and have the same number of genes

C) include genes that determine an individual's sex

D) are called autosomes

C) include genes that determine an individual's sex

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22) Which of these is a karyotype?

A) a display of all of the cell types in an organism

B) organized images of a cell’s chromosomes

C) the appearance of an organism

D) a display of a cell’s mitotic stages

B) organized images of a cell’s chromosomes

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23) If a cell has completed meiosis I and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents?

A) It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.

B) It has half the chromosomes but twice the DNA of the originating cell.

C) It has one-fourth the DNA and one-half the chromosomes as the originating cell.

D) It is identical in content to another cell formed from the same meiosis I event.

A) It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.

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24) The somatic cells of a privet shrub each contain 46 chromosomes. How do privet chromosomes differ from the chromosomes of humans ,who also have 46?

A) Privet cells cannot reproduce sexually.

B) Privet sex cells have chromosomes that can synapse with human chromosomes in the laboratory.

C) Genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different than those in humans.

D) Privet shrubs must be metabolically more like animals than like other shrubs.

C) Genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different than those in humans.

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25) After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is _____.

A) diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid

B) diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids

C) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid

D) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids

D) haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids

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26) How do cells at the completion of meiosis compare with cells that are in prophase of meiosis I? They have _____.

A) half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

B) the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

C) half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

D) half the amount of cytoplasm and twice the amount of DNA.

C) half the number of chromosomes and one-fourth the amount of DNA.

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27) Which of the following happens at the conclusion of meiosis I?

A) Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other.

B) The chromosome number per cell remains the same.

C) Sister chromatids are separated.

D) Four daughter cells are formed.

A) Homologous chromosomes of a pair are separated from each other.

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28) Sister chromatids separate from each other during _____.

A) meiosis I only

B) meiosis II only

C) mitosis and meiosis I

D) mitosis and meiosis II

D) mitosis and meiosis II

29

29) Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?

A) chromosome replication

B) synapsis of chromosomes

C) alignment of chromosomes at the equator

D) condensation of chromosomes

B) synapsis of chromosomes

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30) When we first see chiasmata under a microscope, we know that _____.

A) meiosis II has occurred

B) anaphase II has occurred

C) prophase I is occurring

D) separation of homologs has occurred

C) prophase I is occurring

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31) Homologous chromosomes are aligned at the equator of the spindle.

A) I

B) II

C) IV

D) VI

B) II

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32) Centromeres of sister chromatids disjoin and chromatids separate.

A) III

B) IV

C) V

D) VII

D) VII

33
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Refer to the drawings in the figure of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis, and answer the following questions.

33) Which diagram represents anaphase I of meiosis?

A) I

B) II

C) IV

D) V

A) I

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Refer to the drawings in the figure of a single pair of homologous chromosomes as they might appear during various stages of either mitosis or meiosis, and answer the following questions.

34) Which diagram represents anaphase II of meiosis?

A) I

B) III

C) IV

D) V

D) V

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You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of the same organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in the figure below. Refer to the graph to answer the following question(s).

35) Which sample of DNA might be from a nerve cell arrested in G0 of the cell cycle?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) either I or II

A) I

36
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You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of the same organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in the figure below. Refer to the graph to answer the following question(s).

36) Which sample might represent an animal cell in the G2 phase of the cell cycle?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) both I and II

B) II

37
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You have isolated DNA from three different cell types of the same organism, determined the relative DNA content for each type, and plotted the results on the graph shown in the figure below. Refer to the graph to answer the following question(s).

37) Which sample might represent a zygote?

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) either I or II

A) I

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38) A certain female's number 12 chromosomes both have the blue gene and number 19 chromosomes both have the long gene. As cells in her ovaries undergo meiosis, her resulting eggs (ova) may have which of the following?

A) either two number 12 chromosomes with blue genes or two with orange genes

B) either two number 19 chromosomes with long genes or two with short genes

C) either one blue or one orange gene in addition to either one long or one short gene

D) one chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene

D) one chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene

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39) If a female of this species has one chromosome 12 with a blue gene and another chromosome 12 with an orange gene, and has both number 19 chromosomes with short genes, she will produce which of the following egg types?

A) only blue short gene eggs

B) only orange short gene eggs

C) one-half blue short and one-half orange short gene eggs

D) three-fourths blue short and one-fourth orange short gene eggs

C) one-half blue short and one-half orange short gene eggs

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40) A female with a paternal set of one orange and one long gene chromosome and a maternal set comprised of one blue and one short gene chromosome is expected to produce which of the following types of eggs after meiosis?

A) All eggs will have maternal types of gene combinations.

B) All eggs will have paternal types of gene combinations.

C) Half the eggs will have maternal and half will have paternal combinations.

D) Each egg has a one-fourth chance of having either blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange short combinations.

D) Each egg has a one-fourth chance of having either blue long, blue short, orange long, or orange short combinations.

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41) Somatic cells of roundworms have four individual chromosomes per cell. How many chromosomes would you expect to find in an ovum from a roundworm?

A) four

B) two

C) eight

D) a diploid number

B) two

42

42) Which of the following can occur by the process of meiosis but not mitosis?

A) Haploid cells fuse to form diploid cells.

B) Haploid cells multiply into more haploid cells.

C) Diploid cells form haploid cells.

D) A diploid cell combines with a haploid cell.

C) Diploid cells form haploid cells.

43

43) In meiosis, homologous chromosomes are separated during _____.

A) anaphase II

B) prophase I

C) mitosis

D) anaphase I

D) anaphase I

44

44) What is a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis in a diploid animal?

A) Homologues align on the metaphase plate in meiosis II.

B) Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, and homologues separate in meiosis II.

C) Meiosis II occurs in a haploid cell, while mitosis occurs in diploid cells.

D) Crossover takes place in meiosis II.

C) Meiosis II occurs in a haploid cell, while mitosis occurs in diploid cells.

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45) What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I in a diploid organism?

A) Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I.

B) Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis II.

C) DNA replication takes place prior to mitosis, but not before meiosis I.

D) Only meiosis I results in daughter cells that contain identical genetic information.

A) Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I.

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46) Crossing over normally takes place during which of the following processes?

A) meiosis II

B) meiosis I

C) mitosis

D) mitosis and meiosis II

B) meiosis I

47

47) For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome _____.

A) is paired with a homologous chromosome

B) consists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromere

C) consists of a single strand of DNA

D) is joined with its homologous pair to form a synaptonemal complex

B) consists of two sister chromatids joined by a centromere

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48) Homologous pairs of chromosomes align opposite of each other at the equator of a cell during _____.

A) mitosis metaphase

B) meiosis metaphase I

C) meiosis telophase II

D) meiosis metaphase II

B) meiosis metaphase I

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49) Centromeres split and sister chromatids migrate to opposite poles in meiosis _____.

A) anaphase I

B) telophase I

C) anaphase II

D) telophase II

C) anaphase II

50

50) Quaking aspen can send out underground stems for asexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction is not as common, but when it does happen, the haploid gametes have 19 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the cells of the underground stems?

A) 9

B) 10

C) 19

D) 38

D) 38

51

51) Independent assortment of chromosomes occurs during _____.

A) meiosis I only

B) meiosis II only

C) mitosis and meiosis I

D) mitosis and meiosis II

A) meiosis I only

52

52) For a species with a haploid number of 23 chromosomes, how many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible for the gametes?

A) 23

B) 46

C) about 1000

D) about 8 million

D) about 8 million

53

53) Independent assortment of chromosomes is a result of _____.

A) the random way each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I

B) the random combinations of eggs and sperm during fertilization

C) the random distribution of the sister chromatids to the two daughter cells during anaphase II

D) the diverse combination of alleles that may be found within any given chromosome

A) the random way each pair of homologous chromosomes lines up at the metaphase plate during meiosis I

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54) When homologous chromosomes cross over, what occurs?

A) Two chromatids get tangled, resulting in one re-sequencing its DNA.

B) Two sister chromatids exchange identical pieces of DNA.

C) Corresponding segments of non-sister chromatids are exchanged.

D) Maternal alleles are "corrected" to be like paternal alleles and vice versa.

C) Corresponding segments of non-sister chromatids are exchanged.

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55) How is natural selection related to sexual reproduction as opposed to asexual reproduction?

A) Sexual reproduction results in many new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction.

B) Sexual reproduction results in the greatest number of new mutations.

C) Sexual reproduction allows the greatest number of offspring to be produced.

D) Sexual reproduction utilizes far less energy than asexual reproduction.

A) Sexual reproduction results in many new gene combinations, some of which will lead to differential reproduction.

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56) The diploid number of a roundworm species is 4. Assuming there is no crossover, and random segregation of homologues during meiosis, how many different possible combinations of chromosomes might there be in the offspring (not including variety generated by crossing over)?

A) 4

B) 8

C) 16

D) 64

C) 16

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57) The bulldog ant has a diploid number of two chromosomes. Therefore, following meiosis, each daughter cell will have a single chromosome. Diversity in this species may be generated by mutations and _____.

A) crossing over

B) independent assortment

C) crossing over and independent assortment

D) nothing else

C) crossing over and independent assortment

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58) The fastest way for organisms to adapt to a changing environment involves _____.

A) mutation

B) asexual reproduction

C) sexual reproduction

C) sexual reproduction

59

59) Imagine that there are twenty-five different species of protists living in a tide pool. Some of these species reproduce both sexually and asexually, and some of them can reproduce only asexually. The pool gradually becomes infested with disease-causing viruses and bacteria. Which species are more likely to thrive in the changing environment?

A) the sexually reproducing species

B) the asexually reproducing species

C) Sexually and asexually reproducing species are equally likely to thrive.

A) the sexually reproducing species

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60) In eukaryotes, genetic information is passed to the next generation by processes that include mitosis or meiosis. Which of the explanations identifies the correct process and supports the claim that heritable information is passed from one generation to another?

A) During mitosis, DNA replication occurs twice within the cell cycle to insure a full set of chromosomes within each of the daughter cells produced.

B) Mitosis, followed by cytokinesis, produces daughter cells that are genetically different from the parent cell, thus insuring variation within the population.

C) In asexual reproduction, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.

D) Single-celled organisms can fuse their cells, reproducing asexually through mitosis to form new cells that are not identical to the parent cell.

C) In asexual reproduction, a single individual is the sole parent and passes copies of its genes to its offspring without the fusion of gametes.

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61) Genetic variation leads to genetic diversity in populations and is the raw material for evolution. Biological systems have multiple processes, such as reproduction, that affect genetic variation. They are evolutionarily conserved and shared by various organisms.

Which statement best represents the connection between reproduction and evolution?

A) Plants that use sexual reproduction are rare since this type of reproduction in plants does not contribute to genetic diversity.

B) In order to increase genetic diversity for evolution in sexually reproducing organisms, mutations must occur in the zygote after fertilization.

C) Since prokaryotic organisms reproduce asexually, there is no mechanism for them to add genetic diversity for evolution.

D) Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation because random mutations can be shuffled between organisms.

D) Sexual reproduction increases genetic variation because random mutations can be shuffled between organisms.