Microbial Metabolism Chapter 5

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Microbiology
Chapter 5
Chapter 5
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1

reaction that PRODUCES energy by causing a molecule to LOSE electrons

OXIDATION REACTION

2

reaction that REQUIRES energy in causing a molecule to GAIN electrons

REDUCTION REACTION

3

electrons that are lost in the oxidation reaction are the same electrons that are gained in the reduction reaction. these two reactions are collectively called

REDOX ( REDuction/ OXidation) REACTION

4

1. stores chemical energy released by catabolic reactions

2. provides energy for anabolic reactions

FUNCTION OF ATP

5

ADDING phosphate and STORING energy

PHOSPHORYLATION

6

REMOVING phosphate and RELEASING energy

DE-PHOSPHORYLATION

7

inhibition that occurs when the

-end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits the enzyme activity near the start of the pathway

FEEDBACK INHIBITION

8

what is the FINAL electron acceptor (END PRODUCT) in AEROBIC respiration

OXYGEN (O2)

9

what is the FINAL electron acceptor (END PRODUCT) in ANAEROBIC respiration

any INORGANIC molecule other than OXYGEN (O2)

10

the ONLY enzyme that is NOT a protein

RIBOENZYME

11

cut and splice RNA in EUKARYOTIC cells

what is the FUNCTION OF A RIBOENZYME

12

enzyme inhibitors can be

  1. COMPETITIVE- compete directly for the active site
  2. NON-competitive- compete INdirectly for the alosteric site- ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION
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a substance that binds to the enzyme and induces the enzyme's inactive form- NON-competitive inhibition

ALLOSTERIC INHIBITION

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card image

what causes an active site to CHANGE SHAPE preventing the substrate from fitting

ALLOSTERIC SITE

15

the process by which living organisms AEROBICALLY harvest energy from food

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

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what is glycolysis

the SPLITTING of sugar

17

one glucose molecule produce TWO _________ and TWO __________

ATP & NADH

18

the end product of glycolysis

  1. PYRUVIC ACID (pyruvate)
  2. ATP
  3. NADH
19

how many molecules of ATP are invested in glycolsis

TWO

20

in fermentation the final electron acceptor is

ORGANIC MOLECULE

21

PARTIAL oxidation of glucose (glucose is partially broken down) in the absence of oxygen

FERMENTATION

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does FERMENTATION produce any ATP? if so.....how many

YES fermentation produces TWO ATP

23

normal byproduct of muscle metabolism, that can irritate muscles and cause discomfort and sorenes (cramps)

LACTIC ACID

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small port in an enzyme where substrate molecules bind and undergo a chemical reaction

ACTIVE SITE

25

what molecule binds at the active site

SUBSTRATE MOLECULES

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a molecule being acted on by an enzyme to make another product

SUBSTRATE

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a NON-protein component (other than the substrate) whose presence is essential for the activity of an enzyme

CO-FACTOR

28

what factors affect enzymes

  1. TEMPERATURE (LOW-HIGH)
  2. pH (7 optimal)
  3. SUBSTRATE CONCENTRATION (goes high and plateaus)
  4. SATURATION
29

BREAKING DOWN of more complex organic molecules into simpler substance and RELEASE energy

CATABOLISM (think catastrophe)

CATABOLIC REACTION

30

BUILDING UP of simplier substances to form more complex molecules and REQUIRE energy

ANABOLISM

ANABOLIC REACTION

31

the two major type of glucose catabolism are ________________ in which glucose is COMPLETELY broken down and________________ in which glucose is PARTIALLY broken down

RESPIRATION

FERMENTATION

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the most commonly used carbohydrate

GLUCOSE

33

most of a cells energy is produced from

OXIDATION OF CARBOHYDRATES

34

the sum of all chemical reactions

METABOLISM

35

NON-active protein portion of an enzyme

APOenzyme

36

cells extract energy and store is as

ATP

37

proteins produced by living cells that catalyze chemical reactions by lowering activation energy

ENZYME

38
  • catalyst
  • speed up chemical reactions
  • LOWER the activation energy of the chemical reaction
  • specific to ONE reaction
  • act on a specific substrate

FUNCTIONS OF ENZYMES

39
  • a nonprotein compound that is necessary for the functioning of an enzyme
  • They bind to the active site of the enzyme and participate in catalysis but are not considered substrates of the reaction
  • Example NAD

Co-Enzyme

40

co-factors are composed mainly of

METAL IONS

41

an enzyme complete with both its APOenzyme and COenzyme components

HOLOENZYME

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MAX number of substrate molecules an enzyme can convert to a product each second

TURNOVER NUMBER

43

10,000 - several millin molecular weight is the standard size of

ENZYME

44

enzyme name usually end in

-ase

45

each time a substance is oxidized another is simultaneously reduced

REDOX

46

NAD+ is reduced or oxidized

OXIDIZED FORM

47

NADH is reduced or oxidized

REDUCED (gained Hydrogen)

48

ADDING a P to a molecule is called

PHOSPHORYLATION

49

the most usable form of energy

ATP

50

most common pathway for the oxidation of glucose

GLYCOLYSIS

51

what is glycolsis

the breaking down of pyruvic acid producing small amounts of ATP and NADH that occurs in the cytoplas m

52

does fermentation require oxygen

NO

53

what are the two types of fermentation

1. lactic acid fermentation

2. alcohol fermentation

54

what determines whether cellular respiration is aerobic and anaerobic

the presence of oxygen

55

how much ATP does ANAerobic respiration produce

2 ATP

56

how much ATP can AERobic respiration produce

36-38 ATP