NBE SCIENCES Study Guide Questions

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1

A process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to retard organic decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance is:

a. embalming

2

The irreversible cessation of all vital functions is:

a. death

3

Those changes occurring in the interval prior to somatic death are:

d. antemortem

4

A sharp cutting instrument used for making incisions is the:

b. scalpel

5

That consideration given to the dead body, prior to, during and after the embalming procedure is complete is:

c. case analysis

6

An imaginary line drawn on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some deeper underlying structure is the:

b. linear guide

7

Injection and drainage from one location is called:

c. one point injection

8

Chemicals which inactivate saprophytic bacteria are called:

c. preservative

9

The movement of embalming solutions from the point of injection throughout the arterial system and into the capillaries is called:

d. distribution

10

This embalming method consists of injecting a few ounces of arterial chemical, stopping injection, then draining for a few minutes, and then repeating the process:

a. alternate

11

This is a term used to refer to the after-death examination of the organs and tissues of a body to determine cause of death or pathological conditions:

d. postmortem

12

Any abnormal color appearing in or upon the human body is called:

d. discoloration

13

A needle injector is used for this purpose:

a. mouth closure

14

Content normally aspirated from the stomach:

a. hydrochloric acid

15

When death has been due to pneumonia, an embalmer should expect:

c. thoracic congestion and increased blood viscosity

16

The Formaldehyde Standard for short-term exposure to formaldehyde is:

b. 2 ppm/15 minutes

17

Signs of death exhibited by the eyes of the deceased include:

1. clouding of the cornea and flattening of the eyeball

2. loss of luster of the conjuctiva

3. pupil dilation and non-response to light

4. discoloration of the iris

a. 1, 2, and 3

18

Another name for pleural effusion is:

c. hydrothorax

19

Proteolysis refers to decomposition of:

b. proteins

20

Which of the following conditions would require special attention during thoracic cavity embalming?

1. hydrothorax

2. ascites

3. hydropericardium

4. hydroperiteneum

b. 1 and 3

21

Discoloration resulting when formaldehyde reacts with hemoglobin in he tissues is called:

c. formaldehyde grey

22

Severe generalized edema is known as:

a. anasarca

23

Escape of blood serum from an intravascular to an extravascular location immediately before death is:

c. agonal edema

24

Low index fluids used to inhibit bilirubin from turning to biliverdin are known as:

b. jaundice fluids

25

Chemicals that create an increased capability for embalmed tissues to retain their moisture are called:

a. humectants

26

How many ounces of formaldehyde are contained in a 16-ounce bottle of 25 index arterial fluid?

b. 4 ounces

27

The care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color is the definition of:

c. restorative art

28

The zygomatic process is a feature of the following bones:

c. temporal

29

Which one of the following is a bone of the face?

d. zygomatic

30

The large muscle which covers the top and sides of the skull from occipital bone to eyebrows:

d. occipitofrontalis

31

A crevice in the skin accompanied by adjacent elevation:

b. furrow

32

The vertex of the cranium and the base of the chin are examples of:

d. imaginary horizontal lines

33

This is of value to the restorative artist associated with the three-quarter view photograph for restorative art purposes:

b. reveals the degree of the fullness of the cheeks

34

Which one of the following is one of the basic linear forms of facial profiles?

oval, round, vertical, convex-concave

c. vertical

35

The comparison of the two sides of the face to observe the similarities and differences is referred to as:

a. bilateral

36

Which one of the following is a means of softening wax to alter the wax consistency for restorative art procedures?

c. mixing with cream cosmetics

37

Which of the following are generally involved in positioning of the ear?

1. zygomatic arch

2. mandibular fossa

3. mental protuberance

4. external auditory meatus

b. 1, 2, and 4

38

A general profile classification for the nose from the root to the tip?

c. grecian

39

A type of prognathism:

d. maxillary

40

The eyelids in natural repose:

a. abut, do not overlap

41

The use of an oxidizing chemical to remove stain or discoloration is called:

d. bleaching

42

The original scientific standard of color is:

b. the spectrum

43

One of the pigment cosmetics necessary to match all skin colors:

d. yellow

44

Facial restoration is required due to trauma. Accurate dimensions for facial restoration can be established by means of:

1. a photograph

2. classic proportion

3. supplemental equalities

4. mathematical calculations

b. 1, 2, and 4

45

The width of the face is proportionally equal to the distance between the base of the nose and the:

a. normal hairline

46

A substance that would remove nicotine stains:

d. lemon juice

47

This anatomical structure cannot be used for accurate location of the ear:

c. supraorbital margins

48

The hue sequence pink, rose, cherry is indicative of read that has been:

b. tinted

49

This condition requiring restorative art is classified as traumatic:

c. laceration

50

A characteristic of first degree burns is:

a. redness

51

The tiny prominence on the midline of the superior mucous membrane is the:

d. medial lobe

52

The determinative pigment of all races is:

b. melanin

53

Complementary hues found on the color wheel in this position:

c. opposite each other

54

The hand may be restored if missing or completely mutilated by:

a. making a plaster cast

55

The best method of repair for a dehydrated hand is:

a. hypodermic injection of tissue builder

56

The method of affixing hair depends upon:

c. length

57

Major or minor restoration can be:

b. legally described as mutilation

58

The general procedure for effective hypodermic tissue building is:

c. directing needle to the most distant part

59

In order to begin the modeling of a mutilated or destroyed eye, one must:

c. start with the margins of the eye socket

60

To restore a traumatized or missing forearm:

c. reattach by drilling through bones and wiring

61

The most hazardous chemical to mix with a bleach solution is:

d. ammonia

62

Which one of the following is one of the geometric head forms (frontal view)?

oval, convex, vertical, concave

a. oval

63

In positioning the body, the face should be tilted approximately this many degree to the right:

c. 15

64

A pacemaker should be removed if the body is going to be:

b. cremated

65

A type of plastic undergarment:

a. unionalls

66

When preparing the deceased for visual identification which of the following tasks is included:

b. setting features

67

A religion that may require special burial garments and the deceased to be dressed by members of the church:

d. latter day saints

68

Re-aspirating of the body may become necessary in which of the following circumstances:

b. during an extended visitation period

69

Personal effects and clothing of the deceased are best accounted for by using a/an:

c. personal effects form

70

A line drawn or visualized on the surface of the skin to represent the approximate location of some more deeply lying structure is the:

a. linear guide

71

The two divisions of the skeleton are:

d. axial and appendicular

72

the study of the circulatory system is also known as:

b. angiology

73

The galea aponeurotica is the tendon of which one of the following muscles:

c. occipitofrontalis

74

The artery which supplies arterial solution directly into the thumb side of the hands is the:

c. radial

75

an artery raised to inject the upper extremity below the cubital fossa:

a. radial

76

This muscle is found in the lower extremity:

b. sartorius

77

These bones are located within the cranium:

b. temporal

78

These bones are located within the bones of the face:

d. maxilla

79

The buccinator muscle is also referred to as the:

b. trumpeters muscle

80

The anatomical guide that lies lateral to the tendon of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle describes the:

b. ulnar artery

81

A liquid containing a dissolved substance or substances is a(n):

d. solution

82

When used in arterial formulations eonsine, ponceau red, and erythrosine are examples of:

a. dyes

83

A substance that prevents infection by killing bacteria is classified as a:

d. disinfectant

84

The number of oxygen atoms in the formula 2Al(OH)3 is:

d. 6

85

A 40% by volume solution of formaldehyde is called:

c. formalin

86

The chemical group that makes an alcohol molecule soluble in water and useful to the embalmer is:

b. -OH

87

According to OSHA, the proper way to neutralize a formaldehyde spill is to:

a. add ammonia, then wipe up

88

Formaldehyde is an ingredient of embalming fluid used to:

b. preserve tissue

89

An amine produced during putrefaction is:

c. putrescine

90

Formaldehyde in a powder form is also known as:

d. paraformaldehyde

91

A substance that is capable of bringing about a reduction in a surface tension of a fluid is:

a. a surfactant

92

Which of the following are properties of formaldehyde?

1. It is a colorless gas.

2. It is quite soluble in water

3. It combines with water to form methylene glycol

4. It is easily oxidized to form acetic acid

a. 1, 2, and 3

93

Formaldehyde reacts with ammonia to form:

c. urotropin

94

In comparing cavity fluid to arterial fluid, the cavity fluid will have:

b. no active dyes

95

Polymerization of formaldehyde is inhibited by the addition of:

b. methyl alcohol

96

Reodorants are used in embalming fluids as:

b. masking agents

97

Phenol is used in embalming fluids as a:

a. preservative

98

Sodium citrate is used in embalming fluids as a(n):

c. anticoagulant

99

Deterioration or impairment of an organ is called:

d. degeneration

100

Deformity, abnormal shape or structure, especially a congenital abnormality is a(n):

d. malformation

101

Tissue reaction to injury is called:

c. inflammation

102

A local or generalized condition in which the body tissues contain an excessive amount of tissue fluid is called:

a. edema

103

A new and abnormal formation of tissue or growth is a(n):

b. neoplasm

104

Increase in number of leukocytes (above 10,000 per cu. mm) in blood, and generally caused by the presence of infection and usually transient is called:

d. leukocytosis

105

Inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart is called:

c. endocarditis

106

Diminished amount of urine formation is called:

c. oliguria

107

A loss of function, either partial or complete, as that resulting from a blow or fall is termed a:

c. concussion

108

Inflammation of the testis due to trauma, metastasis, mumps, or infection elsewhere in the body is called:

a. orchitis

109

A disease that begins before birth and is evident at the time of birth is referred to as:

d. congenital

110

An inflammatory condition related to the nervous system is:

a. general paresis

111

A malignant tumor derived principally from connective tissue is a:

a. sarcoma

112

Which of the following conditions would be caused by a thrombus as evidence during embalming?

1. diminished distribution

2. edema

3. intravascular resistane

. atrophy

b. 1 and 3

113

Bacteria typically reproduce by a process called:

d. binary fission

114

A substance that induces the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it is a(n):

a. antigen

115

A minute organism not visible with an ordinary light microscope is a:

a. virus

116

The causative organism in amebic dysentery:

c. entamoeba histolytica

117

Viruses are unaffected by the action of:

b. antibiotics

118

An organism that feeds on dead organic matter only is a:

d. strict saprophyte

119

Rickettsia rickettsii is:

1. a tick-borne disease

2. a flea-borne disease

3. ROcky Mountain Spotted Fever

4. inclusion conjunctivitis

b. 1 and 3

120

Which of the following are true of malignant neoplasms?

1. resembles the tissue of origin

2. grows by infiltration

3. causes tissue damage

4. grows by expansion

c. 2 and 3

121

Pneumococci usually leaves the body through the:

d. nose and mouth

122

A factor that indicates the use of a MORE dilute arterial solution is

emaciation

123

In a case involving death from uremia,

the ammonia reacts with formaldehyde.

124

Rigor mortis and algor mortis are similar in that both are

postmortem conditions

125

How many ounces of 32-index fluid are needed to make 2 gallons of a 2% fluid dilution?

16

126

The settling of the blood to dependent portions of the body is called

hypostasis

127

The direction of eyebrow hair growth is laterally

upward and outward

128

The width of the nose at its base is equal to the width of the

eye

129

Which of the following sutures would best be employed for an abdominal puncture wound?

purse string

130

In posing the eyes, the eyelids should meet at the

inferior third of the orbit

131

Hypodermic tissue building may be performed as a postembalming treatment for

emaciation

132

Bacteria that can grow in the absence or presence of free oxygen are known as

facultative

133

Which superficial dermatomycosis increases when associated with AIDS?

candidiasis

134

An important factor in any consideration of the mode of action of antimicrobial compounds is

selective toxicity

135

Pathogenic microbes are most virulent

when first emitted from the body

136

Wearing protective clothing and exercising Universal Precautions while removing the deceased from the place of death:

I. provides an effective barrier to portals of entry.
II. eliminates the virulence of pathogens.
III. reduces the number of microorganisms present.
IV. is required by OSHA’s bloodborne pathogen rule.

I and IV only

137

Which of the following is the first in the organs to decompose?

lining of trachea

138

A benign neoplasm found in blood vessels is a

hemangioma.

139

Inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart is called

pericarditis

140

Which of the following frequently results from long-term, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus?

atherosclerosis

141

Which of the following conditions would be caused by a thrombus as evidenced during embalming?

I. diminished distribution
II. edema
III. intravascular resistance
IV. atrophy

I and III only

142

Extremely hard water should NOT be used in diluting embalming fluid because it

results in blood coagulation.

143

Chemicals that have the capability of displacing unpleasant odors are

deodorants

144

Which of the following is characteristic of a jaundice fluid?

low formaldehyde content

145

To facilitate the penetration of preservatives during surface embalming, the surface gels may contain

sodium lauryl sulfate.

146

The recommended initial 3% dilution of a 20-Index standard arterial chemical used to embalm an edematous body would be which of the following?

19 oz of arterial to 109 oz of water

147

Which of the following lists the vessels in order going from the aorta towards the upper extremity?

I. axillary
II. brachiocephalic
III. brachial
IV. subclavian

II, IV, I, III

brachiocephalic, subclavian, axillary, brachial

148

The external iliac artery lies along the medial border of which of the following muscles?

psoas major

149

In relation to the lungs, the heart is

medial

150

Blood flow to the arm and hand will reach the following arteries in what order?

I. brachial
II. axillary
III. radial
IV. deep palmar arch

II, I, III, IV

axillary, brachial, radial, palmer's arch

151

When using the 9-region method for cavity embalming, the cecum is located in which of the following regions?

right inguinal