Business Essentials Ch 9

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1

Behavioral Approach to Leadership

focused on determining what behaviors are employed by leaders

2

Charismatic Leadership

type of influence based on the leader's personal charisma

3

Coalition

an informal alliance of individuals or groups formed to achieve a common goal

4

Coercive Power

the power to force compliance by means of psychological, emotional, or physical threat

5

Decision Making

choosing one alternative from among several options

6

Decision-Making Process

recognizing and defining the nature of a decision situation, identifying alternatives, choosing the "best" alternative, and putting it into practice

7

Decision Tree Approach

approach to leadership that provides decision rules for deciding how much participation to allow

8

Employee-Focused Leader Behavior

leader behavior focusing on satisfaction, motivation, and well-being of employees

9

Escalation of Commitment

condition in which a decision maker becomes so committed to a course of action that she or he stays with it even when it appears to have been wrong

10

Ethical Leadership

leader behaviors that reflect high ethical standards

11

Expert Power

power derived from information or expertise

12

Intuition

an innate belief about something, often without conscious consideration

13

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model

approach to leadership that stresses the importance of variable relationships between supervisors and each of their subordinates

14

Leadership

the processes and behaviors used by someone, such as a manager, to motivate, inspire, and influence the behaviors of others

15

Leadership Neutralizers

factors that may render leader behaviors ineffective

16

Leadership Substitutes

individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the need for a leader to initiate or direct employee behavior

17

Legitimate Power

power granted through the organizational hierarchy

18

Nonprogrammed Decision

decision that is relatively unstructured and that occurs with low frequency

19

Path-Goal Theory

theory of leadership that is a direct extension of the expectancy theory of motivation

20

Power

the ability to affect the behavior of others

21

Programmed Decision

decision that is relatively structured or recurs with some frequency (or both)

22

Referent Power

power based on identification, imitation, loyalty, or charisma

23

Reward Power

the power to give or withhold rewards

24

Risk Propensity

extent to which a decision maker is willing to gamble when making a decision

25

Situational Approach to Leadership

assumes that appropriate leader behavior varies from one situation to another

26

State of Certainty

when the decision maker knows with reasonable certainty what the alternatives are and what conditions are associated with each alternative

27

State of Risk

when the availability of each alternative and its potential payoffs and costs are all associated with probability estimates

28

State of Uncertainty

when the decision maker does not know all the alternatives, the risks associated with each, or the likely consequences of each alternative

29

Strategic Leadership

leader's ability to understand the complexities of both the organization and its environment and to lead change in the organization so as to enhance its competitiveness

30

Task-Focused Leader Behavior

leader behavior focusing on how tasks should be performed to meet certain goals and to achieve certain performance standards

31

Trait Approach to Leadership

focused on identifying the essential traits that distinguished leaders

32

Transactional Leadership

comparable to management, it involves routine, regimented activities

33

Transformational Leadership

the set of abilities that allows a leader to recognize the need for change, to create a vision to guide that change, and to execute the change effectively

34

Virtual Leadership

leadership in settings where leaders and followers interact electronically rather than in face-to-face settings