1) The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
A) They contract to push sperm along the ductus deferens.
B) They regulate the temperature of the testes.
C) They are responsible for penile erection.
D) They contract to allow ejaculation.
2) The ability of sperm cells to move along the ductus deferens is due to ________.
B) peristaltic contractions
C) enzymatic activity
D) hormonal action
3) The ability of a male to ejaculate is due to the action of ________.
A) parasympathetic nerves
B) the dartos muscle
C) luteinizing hormone
D) the bulbospongiosus muscles
4) The most important risk for testicular cancer in young males is ________.
B) a diet high in fat
C) nondescent of the testes
D) sexually transmitted infections
5) Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?
A) the seminal vesicles
B) the bulbourethral glands
C) the prostate
D) the pituitary
6) Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
7) Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
A) that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy
B) the suppression of inhibin
C) secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
D) that human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy
8) The primary function of the uterus is to ________.
A) protect the ovaries
B) synthesize female hormones
C) regulate the ovarian and menstrual cycles
D) receive, retain, and nourish a fertilized ovum
9) Why is the blood-testis barrier important?
A) because spermatozoa and developing cells produce surface antigens that are recognized as foreign by the immune system
B) because some blood contents are toxic to the spermatozoa
C) because immature sperm cells lose their motility when they encounter any blood component
D) Actually, the blood-testis barrier has no function.
10) The structures that receive the ovulated oocyte, providing a site for fertilization, are called the ________.
A) Graafian follicles
B) fallopian tubes
11) If gametes were diploid like somatic cells, how many chromosomes would the zygote contain?
A) twice the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to double and normal development could not occur
B) triple the diploid number, and with every succeeding generation, the chromosome number would continue to triple and normal development would not occur
C) half the diploid number with no change in development
D) There is no relationship between gametes and somatic cells.
12) Human egg and sperm are similar in that ________.
A) about the same number of each is produced per month
B) they have the same degree of motility
C) they have the same number of chromosomes
D) they are about the same size
13) The constancy of the chromosome number from one cell generation to the next is maintained through ________.
D) DNA synthesis
14) Fertilization generally occurs in the ________.
D) fallopian tubes
15) Spermiogenesis involves the ________.
A) formation of four haploid cells from a spermatogonium
B) movement of sperm in the female genital tract
C) formation of a functional sperm by the stripping away of superfluous cytoplasm
D) sequence of events in the rete testis
16) All of the following can be considered male secondary sex characteristics except the ________.
A) development of body hair
B) lowering of the voice
C) development of testes as opposed to ovaries
D) increasing mass of the skeleton
17) In humans, separation of the cells at the two-cell state following fertilization may lead to the production of twins, which in this case would be ________.
D) of different sexes
18) Characteristics of the mature sperm include the ________.
A) presence of two X chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
B) presence of Y chromosomes in approximately half the sperm
C) absence of an acrosome
D) absence of coiled mitochondria
19) How do the testes respond to exposure to excessive body warmth?
A) They move close to the pelvic cavity.
B) They move away from the pelvic cavity.
C) Excessive warmth has no effect on the testicles because of their location in the scrotum.
D) Excessive warmth is actually beneficial in that it speeds up the maturation of sperm.
20) Effects of estrogen include ________.
A) increased oiliness of the skin
B) deepening of the voice
C) growth of the breasts at puberty
D) growth of the larynx
21) Secretion of progesterone stimulates ________.
A) contraction of uterine muscles
B) preparation of the mammary glands for lactation
C) secretory activity of the uterine myometrium
D) development of the female secondary sex characteristics
22) Which of the following statements about sperm is not true?
A) They contain very little cytoplasm or stored nutrients.
B) They are sluggish in an alkaline environment.
C) The acrosome is produced by the Golgi apparatus and contains hydrolytic enzymes.
D) The sperm midpiece consists of mitochondria spiraled tightly around the contractile filaments of the tail.
23) The cells that produce testosterone in the testis are called ________.
C) sustentacular cells
D) interstitial cells
24) The testicular cells that construct the blood-testis barrier are the ________.
C) sustentacular cells
D) interstitial cells
25) Which of the following occurs as a result of undescended testes?
A) Male sex hormones will not be circulated in the body.
B) Sperm will have no means of exit from the body.
C) Inadequate or nonviable sperm will be produced.
D) Inadequate blood supply will retard the development of the testes.
26) Erection of the penis results from ________.
A) a sympathetic reflex
B) parasympathetic activation of the bulbourethral glands
C) dilation of the veins in the penis
D) a parasympathetic reflex
27) Which is not a part of the proliferative phase of the female menstrual cycle?
A) late in this phase, cervical mucus becomes thin and crystalline
B) vesicular follicle growth
C) corpus luteum
D) development of endometrial cells
28) Which of the choices below is not a function of the vagina?
A) serves as a passageway for the primary oocyte
B) serves as a passageway for menstrual flow
C) is the birth canal
D) receives semen from the penis during sexual intercourse
29) Select the correct statement about male sexual response.
A) Sympathetic impulses are responsible for causing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.
B) Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissues filling with blood.
C) Expansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow.
D) Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.
30) Which of the choices below is not a function of testosterone?
A) stimulates the male pattern of development
B) contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis
C) stimulates protein synthesis
D) stimulates mammary gland development
31) Which male hormone inhibits the secretion of FSH?
32) During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle ________.
A) LH reaches its highest levels
B) progesterone levels are at their highest
C) estrogen reaches its highest levels
D) the Graafian follicle forms
33) Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
A) The menstrual phase of the cycle is from day 1 to day 8.
B) During the secretory phase, estrogen levels are at their highest.
C) During the proliferative phase, levels of progesterone rise as the follicle begins to produce more hormone.
D) If fertilization occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo.
34) Which of the choices below is not a part of the brain-testicular axis?
B) anterior pituitary gland
35) Which of the following statements is true concerning the mammary glands of both males and females?
A) Both sexes are equally prone to breast cancer.
B) All lumps identified in breast tissue are malignant.
C) The only time hormones target breast tissue is during pregnancy and lactation.
D) The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are actually part of the integumentary system.
36) Normally menstruation occurs when ________.
A) blood levels of FSH fall off
B) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
C) blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase
D) the corpus luteum secretes estrogen
37) The basic difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis is that ________.
A) during spermatogenesis two more polar bodies are produced
B) the mature ovum is n, while the sperm is 2n
C) in oogenesis, one mature ovum is produced, and in spermatogenesis four mature sperm are produced from the parent cell
D) spermatogenesis involves mitosis and meiosis, but oogenesis involves meiosis only
38) Occasionally three polar bodies are found clinging to the mature ovum. One came from an unequal division of the ovum, but from where did the other two arise?
A) There were originally four polar bodies and one disappeared.
B) One is an undeveloped primary oocyte that failed to mature.
C) The first polar body has also divided to produce two polar bodies.
D) What you really see are two polar bodies and the sperm that will fertilize the egg.
39) Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
A) The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.
B) The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
C) The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.
D) The corpus luteum prepares to become a corpus albicans.
40) Why doesn’t semen enter the urinary bladder during ejaculation?
A) There is no common duct between the reproductive system and the urinary system.
B) There is no urge to urinate during sexual intercourse because of the suppression of LH by testosterone buildup in the blood.
C) The smooth muscle sphincter at the base of the urinary bladder closes.
D) Ejaculation is a parasympathetic reflex resulting in no response by urinary contraction muscles.
41) Spermatogenesis ________.
A) is the process of releasing mature sperm cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule
B) involves a kind of cell division limited to the gametes
C) results in the formation of diploid cells
D) uses mitosis to produce gamete cells
42) Which hormone is absolutely necessary for ovulation to occur?
43) The brain-testicular axis ________.
A) is the tight relationship between the cortex and the control of testicular function
B) involves FSH and LH release
C) involves posterior pituitary release of regulating hormones
D) involves a positive feedback loop control of spermatogenesis
44) Select the correct statement about testosterone control.
A) GnRH from the hypothalamus causes FSH and LH release from the anterior pituitary.
B) FSH stimulates testicular production of testosterone.
C) Inhibin and testosterone exert positive feedback on the hypothalamus and pituitary.
D) The pineal gland is believed to be the gland that exerts the most influence in testosterone control.
45) Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
A) The ampulla is the narrow constricted region.
B) The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary.
C) The isthmus is the normal site of fertilization.
D) The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.
46) Select the correct statement about the hormonal events of the ovarian cycle.
A) Rising levels of estrogen start follicle development.
B) High estrogen levels result in a surge of LH release.
C) The follicle begins to secrete progesterone in response to estrogen stimulation.
D) The LH surge stimulates further development of the secondary oocyte.
47) Which of these statements about sexually transmitted infections is false?
A) Chlamydia is caused by bacteria that can often be asymptomatic or bring on a wide variety of symptoms.
B) Gonorrhea is caused by a bacterium that can bring on painful discharges in males.
C) Syphilis is caused by a virus that may lead to death if untreated.
D) Genital herpes is caused by a virus that may cause intermittent lesions.
48) Which of the following statements about spermatogenesis is not true?
A) The spermatogonium forms the primary spermatocyte.
B) The primary spermatocyte forms two secondary spermatocytes.
C) The secondary spermatocytes each form two spermatids.
D) Each spermatid forms two sperm.
49) A boy who has not passed through puberty sustains an injury to his anterior pituitary such that FSH is no longer released, but LH is normal. After he grows to maturity, one would expect that he would ________.
A) be sterile
B) not develop secondary sex characteristics
C) be impotent (unable to have an erection)
D) have impaired function of interstitial cells
50) Which of the following statements about the female reproductive process is not true?
A) Fertilization usually occurs in the fallopian tube.
B) Ovulation usually occurs 14 days after the beginning of menses.
C) Rebuilding the endometrium is under the control of prolactin.
D) The monthly discharge of the uterus (menses) is initiated by the decrease in secretion of female hormones.
51) A low secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) in the normal male adult would cause ________.
A) decreased testosterone secretion
B) excessive beard growth
C) increased spermatogenesis
D) shrinkage of the anterior pituitary gland
52) All of the following statements referring to the uterine cycle are true except ________.
A) FSH and LH directly promote development of the uterine endometrium
B) estrogen is secreted by the developing follicle in the follicular phase of the cycle
C) the corpus luteum is formed from the ruptured follicle after ovulation
D) a decrease in the levels of ovarian hormones signals menstruation
3) Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
A) maximal LH secretion and menstruation
B) maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation
C) early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus
D) regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
54) The duct system of the male reproductive system does not include the ________.
C) ductus deferens
D) corpus spongiosum
55) An ovulating oocyte is actually activated by hormones about ________ days before ovulation.
56) Prostate cancer is _______.
A) the number-one cause of death in men
B) sometimes a slow-growing cancer that may never represent a threat to the patient
C) most common in Asians
D) often the result of a distortion of the urethra