Human Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 16 Study Guide

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1

What are the anatomical and functional links between the endocrine system and nervous system?

hypothalamus and adrenal medulla

2

What is an endocrine glad?

gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream

3

What is a hormone?

chemical that alters the activity of specific cells

4

What is a target cell?

specific cell targeted by hormones

5

How do paracrine regulators differ from hormones?

a paracrine regulator is a target cell near the secreting cell

6

How do autocrine regulators differ from hormones?

an autocrine regulator is a target cell that is also the secreting cell

7

What are the chemical classes of hormones?

polypeptides, steroids, amines

8

Lipid-soluble hormones mode of transport to the bloodstream

cytoplasm or nucleus

9

Water-soluble hormones mode of transport to the bloodstream

2nd messenger system

10

Lipid-soluble ability to pass through the cell membranes of target cells

directly trigger cell response

11

Water-soluble ability to pass through the cell membranes of target cells

indirectly trigger cell response via signal transduction

12

Lipid-soluble location of receptors at target cells

inside target cells

13

Water-soluble location of receptors at target cells

surface of target cells

14

How do lipid-soluble hormones typically affect target cells?

alter gene transcription and protein production

15

How do water-soluble hormones typically affect target cells?

alter membrane transport, enzyme activation, or gene transcription

16

Examples of lipid-soluble hormones

cortisol and thyroxine

17

Examples of water-soluble hormones

insulin and epinephrine

18

How can a single hormone have multiple effects?

different receptor types produce different responses

19

What are tissues that produce hormones?

endocrine tissues

20

What are organs that produce hormones?

endocrine glands

21

Anatomy of the anterior pituitary

pars distalis, Pars tuberalis, Pars intermedia

22

Function of the anterior pituitary

hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones control release of hormones from anterior pituitary

23

Anatomy of the posterior pituitary

Pars nervosa, Infundibular stalk

24

Function of the posterior pituitary

neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus release hormones from posterior pituitary

25

Eight hormones released from the anterior pituitary (with their target cells and functions)

tropic, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, Prolactin, MSH, GH

26

Two hormones released from the posterior pituitary (with their target cells and functions)

oxytocin and ADH (vasopressin)

27

thyroid gland

T3 and T4; regulate metabolic rate and proper growth and development

calcitonin; lowers blood calcium

28

parathyroid gland

parathyroid hormone; increases blood calcium and completes vitamin D synthesis in kidneys

29

pancreas

insulin; lowers blood glucose

glucagon; raises blood glucose

30

thymus

thymosin; controls maturation of T cells

31

adrenal medulla

epinephrine and norepinephrine; promote fight-or-flight response

32

adrenal cortex

aldosterone and cortisol; increase blood glucose and pressure

33

pineal gland

melatonin; regulates daily and seasonal rhythms and controls the reproductive system

34

ovaries

estrogen and progesterone; control development of sex traits and reproduction

35

testes

testosterone; controls development of sex traits and sex drive

36

small intestines

secretin and CCK; stimulate pancreas to release bicarbonate and enzymes, and stimulates gall bladder to contract

37

kidney

erythropoieten; increases red blood cell production

38

placenta

HCG; maintains endometrium during pregnancy

39

What are the stress responses of glucocorticoids?

Proteins and fats broken down and converted to glucose, leading to increased blood glucose.

Partial suppression of immune system.

40

What are the stress responses of mineralocorticoids?

Retention of sodium ions and water by kidneys.

Increased blood volume and pressure.

41

What are the stress responses of epinephrine and norepinephrine?

glycogen broken down to glucose; increased blood glucose.

increased blood pressure, breathing rate, and metabolic rate.

Change in blood flow patterns.

42

What is the role of a second messenger in hormone action?

It relays a hormone's message inside a target cell.

43

Which one of the following endocrine organs does not actually manufacture hormones but, rather, stores hormones produced elsewhere?

posterior pituitary