All of the following factors can cause damage to the cells lining the blood vessels, except:
a. chemicals in cigarette smoke
d. elevated homocysteine
e. high HDL cholesterol
Which of the following factors can contribute to the development of chronic diseases?
a. lifestyle b. gender c. age d. all f. genetics
_______ is the term used to describe the combination of conventional medicine and CAM treatments for which there is some high-quality scientific evidence of safety and effectiveness.
For each ________ point increase in systolic blood pressure and ________ point increase in diastolic blood pressure, the risk of death from CVD doubles.
Which of the following is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes but not for hypertension?
c. diets low in fruits, vegetables, and other foods rich in fiber and phytochemicals
d . diets high in saturated and/or trans fat
e. sedentary lifestyle
Which foods should diabetics avoid?
a. whole wheat grain products
d. dairy products
e. none of these choices f. sugar
Which federal agency is responsible for evaluating dietary supplements for safety or effectiveness and monitoring their contents?
a. NIH b. FDA c. USDA d. CDC e. None of these choices
Which type of immune system cells responds to infection by rapidly dividing and producing large proteins known as antibodies?
Which of the following is not an antigen?
a. toxins b. dust c. viruses d. bacteria e. food proteins that cause allergies
Which of the following is a beneficial effect of physical activity and protective factor against coronary heart disease?
a. lowering blood pressure
b. raising HDL
c. lowering LDL
d. lowering LDL and raising HDL
e. all of these choices f. improving insulin sensitivity
Which of the following statements regarding the immune system is false?
a. Lymphocytes, the scavengers of the immune system, are the second group of cells to arrive at the scene if an invader gains entry.
b. Phagocytes secrete special proteins called cytokines that activate the immune response to infection.
c. T-cells are highly specific with each T-cell attacking only one type of antigen.
d. The antibodies are members of a class of proteins known as immunoglobulins.
e. Two types of white blood cells, the phagocytes and lymphocytes, defend the body against infectious diseases
The Healthy Eating Plate, an alternative to USDA MyPlate, replaces the 'milk' in the meal with:
Low HDL, high blood pressure, insulin resistance, and abdominal obesity – along with high blood triglycerides comprise a cluster of health risks known as ________ .
When ________ are abundant in the diet, they make more of the kinds of eicosanoids that favor heart health.
Which of the following is not a risk factor for coronary heart disease?
a. increasing age b. low blood HDL cholesterol c. diabetes d. high blood LDL cholesterol e. female gender
Which of the following factors regulate blood pressure?
a. hormonal regulation of respiration rate
b. regulation of heart muscle contractions by the nervous system
c. secretion of hormones from the heart
d. all of these choices
e. contractions of the kidneys that cause fluid retention
People with diabetes are ________ as likely to develop cardiovascular problems as those without diabetes.
Which of the following is a hypertension medication that causes the heart to beat more slowly and with less force?
a. calcium channel blockers
b. sodium pump blockers
d. ACE inhibitors
Which of the following is not a risk factor for type 2 diabetes?
a. physical inactivity
d. poor dietary habits
Which of the following dietary factors has not been linked with cancer?
a. cruciferous vegetables
b. processed meats
c. salty foods
d. grilled meats
e. red meat
All of the following are strategies to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease except:
a. If alcohol is consumed, limit it to one drink daily for women and two drinks daily for men.
b. Limit saturated fats to less than 7 percent of total kcalories.
c. Choose a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and other foods high in soluble fibers.
d. Choose a diet low in potassium and salt.
e. Consume fatty fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids at least twice a week.
Which of the following is a means of transmission for HIV?
a. blood b. shaking hands c. breastfeeding d. insect bite e. kissing f. blood, kissing, and insect bite g. breastfeeding, blood, and kissing
In which of the following ways is acute inflammation beneficial with healing?
a. inflammation promotes recovery from external stressors
b. all of these choices
c. inflammation heals wounds
d. inflammation fights off infection
e. inflammation removes damaged tissue
Which of the following is the most atherogenic lipoprotein?
a. HDL b. VLDL c. Triglycerides d. LDL
Which of the following is the body's first line of defense against foreign substances?
a. mucous membranes b. all of these choices c. skin d. GI tract
Which of the following chronic diseases does not have the dietary guidelines to "consume less than 10 percent of kcalories from saturated fatty acids and keep trans-fatty acid consumption as low as possible"?
c. heart disease
d. all of these choices have this dietary guideline
19. Which of the following food-safety concerns is the FDA's highest priority?
a. nutritional adequacy of foods
b. foodborne illness
c. water safety
d. environmental contaminants
19. Raw eggs in their shells, hot dogs in an unopened package, and most aged cheeses can be safely stored in a refrigerator for ________ .
19. Which of the following is not a technique a consumer can use to minimize nutrient losses?
a. Store cut fruits and vegetables in an airtight container in the refrigerator.
b. Wash fruits and vegetables before cutting them.
c. Store most fruits and vegetables at room temperature like they do at the grocery store.
d . Steam or microwave your vegetables.
e. Use cooking water when preparing casseroles and soups.
19. The ________ regulates commercial fishing to help ensure that fish destined for consumption in the United States meet safety standards for mercury and other contaminants.
19. Which of the following is an intentional additive that can also function as an antioxidant?
a. vitamin C
b. vitamin E
e. vitamin C
f. all of these choices
19. The amount of artificial sweetener considered safe is called the ________ .
19. Genetic engineering can have all of the following effects on foods and our food supply except:
a. more efficient food processing b. improved nutrient composition c. growth of crops that resist herbicides d. increased food yields e. a shortened shelf life
19. Which of the following treatment or manufacturing factors would prevent a food from being labeled organic?
a. using genetically engineered seeds for greater yield
b. irradiation of a food to kill microbes in that food
c. use of fertilizer with sewer sludge to grow food
d. all of these choices
19. All of the following vegetables contain small quantities of goitrogens – natural toxicants that can enlarge the thyroid gland, except:
a. cauliflower b. potatoes c. broccoli d. cabbage e. radishes
19. Which of the following is a reason for intentional food additives to be put into foods?
a. to add color and flavor
b. to stabilize the food
c. all of these choices
d. added nutrient value
e. resistance to spoilage
19. According to the Total Diet Study, the FDA finds that ________ percent of domestic and ________ percent of imported samples exceed the amount so pesticide residues considered acceptable.
19. Which of the following statements is false?
a. Raw oysters may carry the hepatitis A virus, which can cause liver disease.
b. Not all types of food poisoning are detectable by odor, but some bacterial wastes produce "off" odors.
c. H1N1 virus can be transmitted by eating pork.
d. A similar disease that develops in people who have
eaten contaminated beef from cows infected with mad cow disease is
called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease.
19. Which of the following is an effect of food radiation on health?
a. none of these choices b. decrease in fertility c. increased risk of cancer d. all of these choices e. increased risk of fetal mutations f. increased risk of birth defects
19. Of the following toxins, which one is most responsible for fish contamination by threefold?
a. DDT b. chlordane c. dioxins d. mercury e. PCB
19. The danger zone for foods is between ________ degrees and ________ degrees F.
19. ________ is the accumulation of contaminants in the flesh of
animals high on the food chain.
19. Which of the following is a means by which surface water contamination can be reversed?
a. plants and microorganisms living in the water
c. all of these choices can reverse surface water
e. fresh rain
19. Which of the following is a concern of unregulated biotechnology?
a. disruption of natural ecosystems by unnatural, genetically altered, organisms
b. introduction of new diseases as newly created viruses may mutate and cause deadly diseases
c. new substances in the modified crops that may cause allergies
d. potential development for biological weapons
e. all of these choices
19. Which of the following is a role of food additives?
a. to speed up cooking time
b. enhancement of nutrient quantity
c. reduction of the risk of foodborne illness
d. all of these choices
19. Which of the following types of fish is relatively high in mercury?
a. cod b. swordfish c. salmon d. tilapia e. sole
19. Which of the following is not a step a consumer can take in their kitchen to prevent foodborne illness?
a. Keep raw eggs, meat, poultry, and seafood separate from other foods.
b. After a meal, refrigerate any leftovers immediately.
c. Cook foods long enough to reach internal temperatures that will kill microbes.
d. Wash countertops, cutting boards, hands, sponges, and utensils in cool, soapy water before and after each step of food preparation.
19. In which of the following ways does low-dose irradiation protect consumers from foodborne illness?
a. Controlling mold in grains.
b. Sterilizing spices and teas for storage at room temperature.
c . Controlling insects and extending shelf life in fresh fruits and vegetables.
d. Destroying harmful bacteria in frozen beef, poultry, lamb, and pork.
e. All of these choices
19. Which of the following is a reason why consumers choose to purchase organic products? a
. to reduce exposure to pesticides
b. protecting animals
c. improving worker safety
d. all of these choices
e. benefiting the environment
19. Wash your hands with warm water and soap for at least ________ seconds before preparing or eating food to reduce the chance of microbial contamination.
20. To prevent death from diarrheal disease, it is important to provide all of the following things, except:
a. oral rehydration therapy b. adequate sanitation c. clean water d. sheltered housing
20. Hunger has many causes, but in developed countries, the primary cause is ________ .
20. Which of the following is not a type II nutrient in which a deficiency result in impaired growth?
a. potassium b. magnesium c. iron d. amino acids e. zinc
20. In the United States, the food industry consumes about ________ percent of all the energy the nation uses.
20. Each year, an estimated ________ of the world's food supply is wasted along the way from farm to final consumption.
20. All of the following nutrients are most likely to be deficient in a child suffering from malnutrition, except:
a. riboflavin b. iodine c. zinc d. iron e. vitamin A
20. Which of the following severe forms of malnutrition is characterized by poor growth, dramatic weight loss, loss of body fat and muscle, and apathy?
d. none of these choices
e. parasitic malnutrition
20. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Poverty and hunger contribute to population growth.
b. As the world's population continues to grow, much of the increase is occurring in developing countries where hunger and malnutrition are already widespread.
c. All of these choices are true
d . Population growth is a central factor contributing to poverty and hunger.
e. Poverty and its consequences leave women vulnerable
to physical abuse, forced marriages, and prostitution.
20. Which of these four common food recovery methods involves the collecting of fresh foods from wholesalers and markets before they rot or become inedible?
a. nonperishable food collection
b. field gleaning
c. perishable food rescue or salvage
d. prepared food rescue
20. It takes approximately ________ gallons of water to produce 1 serving of steak.
20. In recent years, which of the following factors was the dominant cause of famine?
a. disease among people
e. political unrest
20. The United Nations (UN) describes a nation's impact on the environment as its " ________ ."
20. Which of the following continents has the greatest percentage of people living in hunger 'hot spots'?
a. North America b. Antarctica c. Asia d. Africa e. South America
20. Which of the following food assistance programs is the largest federal program in both the amount of money spent and in the number of people served?
a. Feeding America b. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) c. Meals on Wheels d. None of these choices e. Women, Infant, and Children (WIC)
20. Which of the following statements is false?
a. The highest rates of obesity occur among those living in the greatest poverty.
b. Food insecure people who participate in food assistance programs have a greater risk of obesity than those who do not participate.
c. Poor-quality diets deliver more kcalories, but fewer nutrients, for less money.
d. Many healthful food choices are not readily available in low-income or rural neighborhoods.
20. Compared with adequately nourished children, the risk of death is ________ times greater for children with mild malnutrition.
20. All of the following are approaches poor nations can subscribe to perform for sustainable development except:
a. develop better programs to assist the poor
b. slow and reverse the destruction of environmental resources
c. none of these choices
d. reduce their wasteful use of resources and energy
e. provide contraceptive technology to their citizens
20. One way to reduce the costs (i.e., water use, pesticide use, and energy use) of food production is for consumers to eat low on the food chain. This is evident considering that most animal-derived foods require from ________ kcalories of fuel per kcalorie of edible food.
20. On average, an item of food is transported ________ miles before it is eaten – when the crops are grown and the final destination are both in the United States.
20. For pregnant women living in poverty, the risk of developing
gestational diabetes is more than ________ that of pregnant women not
living in poverty.
20. One-sixth of the world's population have no land and no possessions at all. They are the "poorest poor" and they survive on less than $ ________ a day.
20. The limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally adequate
and safe foods is known as ________ .